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作为对比,图示正常甲状旁腺。脂肪细胞与甲状旁腺组织混在一起。脂肪数量可有一定变化。

Here is a normal parathyroid gland for comparison. Adipose tissue cells are mixed with the parathyroid tissue. The amount of fat varies somewhat.

正常右肾上腺,位于腹膜后肝和肾之间。可见大量脂肪组织,其中一些被掀起来显示肾脏上极和肾上腺。

A normal right adrenal gland is shown here positioned between the liver and the kidney in the retroperitoneum. Note the amount of adipose tissue, some of which has been reflected to reveal the upper pole of the kidney and the adrenal.

正常肾上腺,肾上腺重4-6g。

Here are normal adrenal glands. Each adult adrenal gland weighs from 4 to 6 grams.

肾上腺的横切面显示出外部金黄*色皮质和内部灰红色的髓质。

Sectioning across the adrenals reveals a golden yellow outer cortex and an inner red to grey medulla.

正常肾上腺,低倍镜。右向左依次为肾脏脂肪囊、被膜、球状带、束状带、网状带和髓质。

中间是一对正常的肾上腺。上边是肾上腺萎缩病人的肾上腺(可见于Addison病或长期应用皮质类固醇治疗)。下边是皮质增生的肾上腺,可能是垂体腺瘤分泌ACTH (Cushing病),或异位分泌ACTH引起的库欣综合征,或特发性肾上腺增生。

The pair of adrenals in the center are normal. Those at the top come from a patient with adrenal atrophy (with either Addison's disease or long-term corticosteroid therapy). The adrenals at the bottom represent bilateral cortical hyperplasia. This could be due to a pituitary adenoma secreting ACTH (Cushing's disease), or Cushing's syndrome from ectopic ACTH production, or idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia.

流行性脑脊髓膜炎(脑膜炎双球菌引起)时,肾上腺大范围出血使其呈暗红色,从而发生沃-弗综合征。

These adrenals are black-red from extensive hemorrhage in a patient with meningococcemia. This produces the Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome.

流行性脑脊髓膜炎(脑膜炎双球菌引起)病人的肾上腺。肾上腺出血性坏死所致急性肾上腺皮质功能不全。

This is the microscopic appearance of the adrenals with meningococcemia. There is marked hemorrhagic necrosis with acute adrenal insufficiency.

沃-弗综合征的病人存在脑膜炎双球菌败血症、弥散性血管内凝血(DIC)、明显紫癜。

The patient with Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome has sepsis with DIC and marked purpura.

增大肾上腺的标本显示,灰白色转移癌浸润和包围残余的金黄*色皮质。转移到肾上腺的癌最常见的原发部位是肺。

These sections through an enlarged adrenal gland demonstrate tan-white metastatic carcinoma infiltrating in and around the residual golden yellow cortex. The most common primary site for adrenal metastases is lung.


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