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Microscopically, caseous necrosis is characterized by acellular pink areas of necrosis, as seen here at the upper right, surrounded by a granulomatous inflammatory process.

图示:干酪样坏死

特征性病变为:如图右上角的非细胞组成的粉红色区域,被形成的炎症肉芽肿所包围。

This is gangrene, or necrosis of many tissues in a body part. In this case, the toes were involved in a frostbite injury. This is an example of "dry" gangrene in which there is mainly coagulative necrosis from the anoxic injury.

图示:坏疽(某一部位的大片组织坏死)

此为趾冻伤后由于缺氧发生了干性坏疽,主要为凝固性坏死。

This is gangrene of the lower extremity. In this case the term "wet" gangrene is more applicable because of the liquefactive component from superimposed infection in addition to the coagulative necrosis from loss of blood supply. This patient had diabetes mellitus.

图示:糖尿病足-湿性坏疽

可发生在四肢末端,组织缺血坏死后伴发感染,含水分较多,为湿性坏疽。

Gangrenous necrosis involves the tissues of a body part. The inflammation seen here is extending beneath the skin of a toe to involve soft tissue (fat and connective tissue) and bone. Because multiple tissues are non-viable, amputation of such areas is necessary.

坏疽使机体局部组织坏死,炎症可以扩散到从趾到皮下软组织(脂肪、结缔组织)和骨。因多种组织失去活性。因此切除坏死组织手术是必要的。

Cytoplasmic organelle damage leads to a variety of injury patterns, most of which are best seen by electron microscopy. Acute injuries tend to damage an entire cell, so specific organelle damage is beside the point. However, in some cases the damage can be cumulative over many years. Here are Mallory bodies (the red globular material) composed of cytoskeletal filaments in liver cells chronically damaged from alcoholism. These are a type of "intermediate" filament between the size of actin (thin) and myosin (thick).

细胞器损伤所产生的多种变化,大多用电子显微镜才能看到。急性损伤往往会导致整个细胞的损伤。一些损伤经过多年会逐渐累积。图示:在慢性酒精中毒损伤的肝细胞中的Mallory小体(红染球状物)由肝细胞骨架微丝组成,这是一种介于肌球蛋白(粗)和肌动蛋白(细)之间的纤维成份。

Here are neurofibrillary tangles in neurons of a patient with Alzheimer's disease. The cytoskeletal filaments are grouped together in the elongated pink tangles.

图示:阿尔茨海默病人神经原纤维排列紊乱

细胞骨架微丝杂乱的聚集在变长(图示)的粉红色区域中。

Intracellular accumulations of a variety of materials can occur in response to cellular injury. Here is fatty metamorphosis (fatty change) of the liver in which deranged lipoprotein transport from injury (most often alcoholism) leads to accumulation of lipid in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes.

图示:肝细胞脂肪变性
HE染色肝细胞充满脂质,呈空泡状

细胞损伤时细胞内的沉积物是多种多样的。肝细胞损伤尤其是长期酒精性损伤导致脂蛋白大量异常转运从而使脂质在肝实质细胞内大量沉积。

The liver injury with chronic alcoholism leads to fibrosis and regeneration of the hepatocytes in nodules. This firm, nodular appearance of the liver as seen here is called cirrhosis.

图示:酒精性肝硬化

慢性酒精性肝病使肝纤维化同时伴有肝细胞的结节状再生。质地变硬,呈结节状外观,称为肝硬化。

This is a Congo red stain to reveal orange-red deposits of amyloid, which is a proteinaceous material that can collect in cells and tissues.

图示:刚果红染色淀粉样变化

在细胞内或组织间沉积了蛋白样物质,染色呈桔红色。

Sometimes cellular injury can lead to accumulation of a specific product. Here, the red globules seen in this PAS stained section of liver are accumulations of alpha-1-antitrypsin in a patient with a congenital defect involving this substance.

有时细胞损伤会导致特定物质的沉积。图示:PAS染色肝切面可见红色水珠样物,发生在先天性α-I型抗胰蛋白酶缺乏症病人。


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