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1992年考研英语试题及答案

Ⅰ. In each sentence, decide which of the four choicea given will most suitably complete the sen-
tence if inserted at the place marked. Put your choices in the ANSWER SHEET. ( 15 points )


l . I will give this dictionary to _ wants to have it.
A. whomever B. someone C. whoever C. anyone
2. After having gone _ far, George did not want to turn back.
A. enough B. much C. such D. that
3. _ all our kindness to help her, Sarah refused to listen to us.
A. At B. For C. In D. On
4. Richard doesn' t think he could ever _ what is called "free-style" poetry.
A. take on B. take over C. take to D. take after
5. In the past men generally perfered that their wives _ in the home.
A. worked B. would work C. work D. were working
6. I don't want to lend any more money to him; he's already in debt _ me.
A. to B. for C. of D. with
7. The business of each day, _ selling goods or shipping them,went quite smoothly.
A. it being B. be it C. was it D. it was
8. Carey didn't go to the party last night because she _ the baby for her sister until 9:30 .
A. must have looked after B would have to look after
C. had to look after D. should have looked after
9. _ , he does get initated with her sometimes.
A. As he likes her much B. Much though he likes her
C. Though much he like her D. Much as he likes her
IO. Califomians and New Englanders speak the same language and _ by the same federal laws.
A. stand B. conform C. abide D. sustain


Il . The vocabulary of any technical discussion may include words which are never used outside the subject or field _ .
A. in view B. in question C. in case D. in effect
12 . The long-awaited Hubble Space Telescope,_ to orbit the Earth next March ,will ob- serve some of the oldest stars in the sky.
A. subject B. owing C. available D. due
13. _ of the burden of ice, the balloon climbed up and drifted to the South.
A. To be free B. Freeing C. To free D. Freed
14. The patient has been _ of the safety of the operation.
A. assured B. guaranteed C. entrusted D. confirmed
15. Will you _ this passage to see if there is any misprint?
A. look up B. go over C. dwell on "D. work out
16. The patients believe that the doctor knows exactly how to put them _.
A. correct B. straight C. right D. well
17. Although he thought he was helping us prepare the dinner, he was actuaily _ the way .
A. in B. by C. off D. on
18. If we believe something is good and true we should tn it.
A. hold up B. keep on C. hold on D. keep up
19. _, more than 200 houses and buildings are heated by solar energy, not to mention the big cities in the region.
A. Alone in the small town B. In the small alone town
C. In the alone small town D. In the small towll alone
20 . The bank is reported in the local newspaper in broad daylight yesterday.
A. to be robbed B. robbed
C. to have been robbed D. having been robbed
21 . The engineers are going through with their highway project , the expenses have risen .
A. even though B. just because
C. now that D. as though
22: Although we had told then not to keep us waiting, they made no _ to speed up deliv- eries .
A. trial B. attempt C. action D. progress
23 . Water will continue to be _ it is today-next in importance to oxygen.
A. how B. which C. as D. what
24. Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he _ our chairman now.
A. must have been B. would have been
C. were . D. would be
25. Stressful environments lead to unhealthy behaviors such as poor eating habits, which _increase the risk of heart disease.
A. in tum B. in retum C. by chance D. by tums
26. The tourist is prevented from entering a country if he does not have passport.
A. . an operative B. a valid C. an efficient D. an effective
27. I like to go to the cinema when I am in the _ for it.
A. motive B. mind C. mood D. notion
28. The project requires more labor than
A. has been put in B. have been put in
C. being put in D. to be put in
29. Circus tigers, although they have been tamed, can _ attack their trainer.
A. unexpectedly B. deliberately
C. reluctantly D. subsequently
30. There seemed little hope that the explorer, _ in the tropical forest, would find his way through it.
A. to be deserted B. having deserted
C. to have been deserted D. having been deserted


Ⅱ. Each of the passags below is fnllowed by some questions. For each question four answers are given. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions.
Put your choice in the ANSWER SIIEET. (30 points)
1
It is all very well to blame traffic jams, the mst of petrol and the quick pace of modem life, but manners on the roads are beaoming horrible. Everybody knows that the nicest men become monsters behind the wheel. It is aU vvy well, again, to have a tiger in the tank, but to have one in the driver's seat is arnother matter altogether. You might tolerate the odd road-hog, the rude and inconsiderate driver, but nowadays the well-mannered motorist is the exception to the rule.
Perhaps the situation calls for a 'Be Kind to Other Drivers' ampaign, otherwise it may get com- pletely out of hand. Road politeness is not only good manners, but good sense too. It takes the most cool-headed
and good-tempered of drivers to resist the temptation to revenge when subjected to uncivilized be- havior. On the other hand, a little politeness goes a long way towards relieving the tensions of motoring. A friendly nod or a wave of acknowledgement in response to an act of politeness helps to create an atmosphere of goodwill and tolerance so necessary in modem tralfic conditions. But such acknowledgements of politeness are all too rare today. Many drivers nowadays don't even seem able to recognize politeness when they see it. However, misplaced politeness can also be dangerous. Typical examples are the driver who brakes violently to allow a car to emerge from a side street at solne hazard to following traffic, when a few seconds later the road would be clear anyway; or the man who waves a child across a zebra crossing into the path of oncoming vehicles that may be unable to stop in time. The same goes for encouraging old ladies to cross the road wherever and whenever they care to. It always a- mazes me that the highways are not covered with the dead bodies of these grannies.
A veteran driver, whose mallners are faultless, told me it would help if motorists leamt to filter correctly into traffic streams one at a time without causing the total blockages that give rise to bad temper. Unfortunately, modern motorists can' t even learn to drive, let alone master the subtler aspects of roadsmanship. Years ago the experts warned us that the car-owrner-ship explo- sion would demand a lot more give-and-take from all road users. It is high time for all of us to take this message to heart.
31 . According to this passage, troubles on the road are primarily caused by

A. people' s attitude towards the road-hog
B. the rhythm of modem life
C. the behavior of the driver
D. traffic conditions
32. The sentence "You might tolerate the odd road-hog . . . the rule. " (Para. I ) implies that
A. our society is unjust towards well-mannered motorists
B. rude drivers can be met only occasionally
C. the well-mannered motorist cannot tolerate the road-hog
D. nowadays impolite drivers constitute the majority of motorists
33. By "good sense" , the writer means
A. the driver' s ability to understand and react reasonably
B. the driver' s prompt response to difficult and severe conditions
C. the driver' s tolerance of nlde or even savage behavior
D. the driver' s acknowledgement of politeness and regulations
34. Experts have long pointed out that in the faoe of car-owner-ship explosion,
A. road users should make more sacrifice
B. drlvers should be ready to yield to each other
C. drivers should have more communication among themselves
d. drivers will suffer great loss if they pay no respect to others
35. In the writer's opinion,
A. strict traffic regulations are badly needed
B. drivers should apply road politeness properly
C. rude drivers should be punished
D. drivers should avoid traffic jams
2
In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide acts rather like a one-way mirror--the glass in the roof of a greenhouse which allows the sun's rays to enter but prevents the heat from escaping. According to a weather expert' s prediction, the annosphere will be 3C warmer in the year
2050 than it is today, if man continues to burn fuels at the present tate. If this warming up took place, the ice caps in the poles would begin to melt, thus raising sea level several metres and severely flooding coastal cities. Also, the increase in atmospheric emperature would lead to great changes in the climate of the nonthern emisphere, possibly resulting in an alteration of earth's chief food-growing zones.

In the past, concern about a man-made warming of the earth has concentrated on the Arctic because the Antarctic is much colder and has a much thicker ice sheet. But the weather experts are now paying more attention to West Antarctic, which may be affected by only a few degress of warming, in other words, by a warming on the scale that will possibly take place in the next fifty years from the burning of fuels.
Satellite pictures show that large areas of Antarctic ice are already dispappearing. The evi- dence available suggests that a warming has taken place. This fits the theory that carbon dioxide warms the earth.
However, most of the fuel is burnt in the northern hemisphere, where temperatures seem to be falling. Scientists conclude , therefore, that up to now natural influences on the weather have exceeded those caused by man. The question is: Which natural cause has most effect on the weather?
One possibility is the variable behavior of the sun. Astronomers at one research station have studied the hot spots and "cold" spots (that is, the relatively less hot spots) on the sun. As the sun rotates, every 27. 5 days, it presents hotter or "colder" faces to the earth, and different as- pects to different parts of the earth. This seems to have a considerable effect on the distribution of the earth's atmospheric pressure, and consequently on wind circulation. The sun is also variable over a long term: its heat output goes up and down in cycles, the latest trend being downward. Scientists are now finding mutual relations between models of solar-weather interactions and the actual climate over many thousands of years, "including the last Ice Age. The problem is that the models are predicting that the world should be entering a new Ice Age and it is not. One way of solving this theoretical difficulty is to assume a delay of thousands of years while the solar ef- fects overcome the inenia (惯性) of the earth's climate. If this is right, the warming effect of carbon dioxide might thus be serving as a useful counter-balance to the sun's diminishing heat .
36. It can be concluded that a concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would
A. prevent the sun's rays from leeching the earth's surface
B. mean a warming up in the Arctic
C. account for great changes in the climate in the noHhem hemisphere
D. raise the temperature of the earth' s surface
37. The article was written to explain
A. the greenhouse effect
B. the solar effects on the earth
C. the models of solar-weather interactions
D. the causes affecting weather
38. Although the fuel consumption is greater in the northem hemisphere, temperatures there seem to be faILing. This is
A. mainly because the levels of carbon dioxide are rising
B. possibly because the ice caps in the poles are melting
C. exclusively due to the effect of the inenia of the earth' s climate
D. partly due to variations in the output of solar energy
39. On the basis of their models, scientists are of the opinion that
A. the climate of the world should be becoming cooler
B. it will take thousands of years for the inertia of the earth's climate to take effect
C. the man-made warming effect helps to increase the solar effects
D. the new Ice Age will be delayed by the greenhouse effect
40. If the assumption about the delay of a new Ice Age is correct,
A. the best way to overcome the cooling effect would be to bum more fuels
B. ice would soon cover the northern hemisphere
C. the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could warm up the earth even
more quickly
D. the greenhouse effect oould work to the advantage of the earth
3
Some people believe that intemational sport creates goodwill between the nations and that if countries play games together they will leam to live together. Others say that the opposite is true :
that intemational contests encourage false national pride and lead to misunderstanding 8nd hatred. There is probably some truth in both arguments, but in recent years the Olympic games have done little to support the view that sports encourages intenational brotherhood. Not only, was there the tragic incident involving the murder of athletes, but the Games were also ruined by lesser inci- dents caused incipally bv minor national contests. One country received its second-place medals with visible indignation after the horkey ( 曲棍球 ) final. There had been noisy scenes at the end of the hockey match, the losers objecting to the final decisions. They were convinced that one of their goals should not have been disallowed and that their opponents' victory was unfair. Their manager was in a rage when he said : "This wasn' t hockey. Hockey and the Intenational Hockey Federatior are finished. " The president of the Federation said later that such behavior could result in the suspension of the team for at least three years .
The Anlerican basketball team announced that they would not yield first place to Russia, af- ter a disputable end to their contest. The game had ended in disturbance. It was thought at first that the United States had won, by a single point, but it was announced that there were three seconds still to play. A Russian player then threw the ball from one end of the court to the other, and another player popped it into the basket. It was the first time the USA had ever lost an Olympic basketball match. An appeal jury debated the matter for four and a half hours before an- nouncing that the result would stand. The American players then voted not to receive the silver
medals . Incidents of this kind will continue as long as sport is played competitively rather than for the love of the game. The suggestion that athletes should compete as individuals, or in non-national teams , might be too much to hope for. But in the present organization of the Olympics there is far too much that encourages aggressive patriotism.
41. According to the author, recent Olympic Games have__
A. created goodwill between the nations
B. bred only false national pride
C. barely showed any intemational friendship
D. led to more and more misunderstanding and hatred
42. What did the manager mean by saying, " . . . Hockey and the International Hockey Federa-
tion are finished" ?
A. His team would no longer take part in international games.
B. Hockey and the Federation are both ruined by the unfair decisions.
C. There should be no more hockey matches organized by the Federation.
D. The Federation should be dissolved.
43. The basketball example implied that
A. too much patriotism was displayed in the incident
B. the announcement to prolong the match was wrong
C. the appeal jury was too hesitant in making the decision
D. the American team was right in rejecting the silver medals
44 . The author gives the two examples in paragraphs 2 and 3 to show
A. how false national pride led to undesirable incidents in international games
B. that sportsmen have been more obedient than they used to be
C. that competitiveness in the games discourages intenrational friendship
D. that unfair decisions are common in Olympic Games
45. What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?
A. The organization of the Olympic Games must be improved.
B. Athletes should oompete as individuak in the Olympic Games.
C. Sport should be played competitively rather than for the love of the game.
D. International contests are liable for misunderstanding between nations.


Ⅲ. For each numbered blank in the following passage there four choices labelled A, B, C,nd D. Choose the best one and put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET by blackening(15 points)


The key to the industrialization of space is the U. S. space shuttle.(46) it, astronauts will acquire a workhouse vehicle (47) of flying into space and returning many tiems. (48) _ by reusable rockets that can lift a load of 65 ,OOO pounds, the shuttle will carry devices for si- entific inquiry , as (49) as a variety of military hardware. (50) more significantly, it will (51) materials and machines into space for industrial purposes (52) two decades ago
when "sputnik" ( artificial satellite) was (53) to vocabulary. In short, the (54) im- portance of the shuttle lies in its (55) as an economic tool. What makes the space shuttle (56) is that it takes off like a rocket but lands like an air- plane. (57), when it has accomplished its (58), it can be ready for (59) trip in about two weeks. The space shuttle, the world' s first true spaceship, is a magnificent step (60) making the impossible possible for the benefit and survival of man.
46. A. In B. On C. By D. With
47. A. capable B. suitable C. efficient D. fit
48. A. Served B. Powered C. Forced D Reinforced
49. A. far B. well C. much D. long .
50. A. Then B. Or C. But D. So
51 . A. supply B. introduce C. deliver D. transfer
52. A. unimagined B. unsettled C. uncovered D. unsolved
53. A. attributed B. contributed C. applied D. added
54. A. general B. essential C. prevailing D. ultimate
55. A. promise B. prosperity C. popularity D. priority
56. A. exceptional B. strange C. unique D. rare
57. A. Thus B. Whereas C. Nevertheless D. Yet
58. A. venture B. mission C. commission D. responsibility
59. A. new B. another C. certain D. subsequent
60. A. for B. by C. in D. through


Ⅳ. Each of the fnllowing sentences has four underlined parts. These parts are labelied A, B, C and D. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and put your choice in the AN.
SWER SHEET. Then, without altering the meaning of the sentence, write down your cor- rection on the line in the ANSWER SHEET. ( 1O points)


61. Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of Dickens                     A B
far more exciting than Thackeray .
C             D
62. People cannot but feel puzzling , for they simply cannot
A     B           C
understand how he could have made such a stupid mistake.
D
63. Nowhere but in Europe we have seen the results so clearly, which
A            B   
really have surprised us all.
C      D
64 . The amount of pressure which the materials are subject to affect
A   B            C     D
the quality of the products.
65. I regret having left the work unfinished; I should plan
A          B        C
everything ahead carefully.
D
66. The problem of unemployment the govemments want solved is as
A          B
serious as never in these underdeveloped countries .
C          D
67 . Many species can communicate an amazing amount of information

via sound, information which both the life of an individual and the
B            C
continued existence of the species may depend.
D
68. It was not so much the many blows he received for the lack of
A                B
fighting spirit that led to his losing the game.
C               D
69 . Those part-time students expected to offer some jobs on campus
A       B
during the coming summer vacation .
C     D
70 . With production having gone up steadily , the factory needs an
A         B        
ever-increasing supply of raw materials .
C         D
V . Read the following passgge carefully and then tranlate the underlined sentences into Chinese. (15 points)

Intelligence' at best is an assumptive construct-the meaning of the word has never been clear. (71 ) There is more agreement on the kinds of behavior refeued to by the term than there is on how to interpret or classify them. But it is generally agreed that a person of high intelligence is one who can grasp ideas readily, make distinctions, reason logically, and make use of verbal and mathematical symbols in solving problems. Art intelligence test is a rough measure of a child's capacity for learning, particularly for learning the kinds of things required in school. It does not measure character, social adjustment, physical endurance, manual skills, or artistic abilities. It is not supposed to-it was not designed for such purposes. (72) To criticise it for such failure is roughly comparable to criticising a thermometer for not measuring wind velocity .
The other thing we have to notice is that the assessment of the intelligence of any subject is essentially a comparative affair.
(73) Now since the assessment of intelligence is a comparative matter we must be sure that the scale with which we are comparing our subjects provides a 'valid' or 'fair' comparison. It is here that some of the difficulties which interest us begin. Any test performed involves at least three factors: the intention to do one's best, the knowledge required for understanding what you have to do, and the intellectual ability to do it. (74) The first two must be equal for all who are being compared , if any comparison in terms of intelligence is to be made. In school populations in our culture these assumptions can be made fair and reasonable , and the value of intelligence testing has been proved thoroughly. Its value lies, of course, in its providing a satisfactory basis for prediction. No one is in the least interested in the marks a little child gets on his test; what we are interested in is whether we can conclude from his mark on the test that the child win do better or worse than other children of his age at tasks which we think require 'general intelligence' .
(75) On the whole such a conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but only if the child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the other with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lack of relevant information which they possessed .


Ⅵ . Writing (15 points)
DIRECTIONS :
A) Title: FOR A BETTER UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN PARENT AND CHILD
B) Time limit: 40 minutes
C) Word limit: 120 - 150 words (not includtng the given opening sentence)
D) Your composition should be based on the OUTLINE below and should start with the given opening sentence.
E) Your composition must be written clearly in the ANISWER SHEET.
OUTLINE :
1 . Present situation: Lack of communication between parent and child
2 . Possible reasons:
1) Different likes and dislikes
2) Misunderstanding
3) Others
3 . Suggestions :
l) For parents
2) For children
答案:
Ⅰ. l. C 2. D 3. B 4. C 5.C
6. A 7. B 8. C 9. D 10. C
11. B 12. D 13. D 14. A 15. B
t6. C 17. A 18. C 19. D 20. C
21. A 22. B 23. D 24. D 25. A
26. B 27. C 28. A 29. A 30. D
Ⅱ. 31. C 32. O 33. A 34. B 35. B
36. D 37. D 38. D 39. A 40. D
41. C 42. B 43. A 44. C 45. A
Ⅲ. 46. D 47. A 48. B 49. B 50. C
51. C 52. A 53. D 54. D 55. A
56. C 57. A 58. B 59. B 60. C
Ⅳ. 61. (D) Thackery's 66. (C) ever
62. (B) puzzled 67. (C) on which
63. (A) have we seen 68. (B) as
64. (D) affects 69. (A) to be offered
65. (C) should have planned 70. (B) going
Ⅴ.
答案:
Ⅰ. l. D 2. C 3. C 4. C 5. B
6. D 7. D 8. A 9. A 10. B
11. C 12. C 13. A 14. B 15. D
16. A ' 17. B 18. A 19. A 20. D
21. D 22. D 23. A 24. D 25. A
26. B 27. A 28. A 29. B 30. B
Ⅱ. 31. B 32. C 33. C 34. B 35. D
36. C 37. D 38. D 39. C 40. B
41. D 42. C 43. B 44. A 45. A
Ⅲ. 46. B 47. D 48. A 49. B 50. D
51. C 52. A 53. C. 54. B 55. D
56. A 57. B 58. D 59. C. 60. B
Ⅳ. 61 . (C) made 66. (A) having blamed
62. (A) educationally 67. (B) have we seen
63. (A) have taken 68. (C) into the writing
64. (B) (should) be assigned 69. (D) to pay them
65. (B) written 70. (C) wlth the result
Ⅴ.
71.人们对智力这个词所指的不同表现意见比较一致,而对这些表现如何解释或分类则有不同的看法。
72.批评智力测试不反映上述情况,犹如批评温度计不能测风速一样。
73.既然对智力的评估是比较而言的,那么我们必须确保,在对我们的对象进行比较时,我们所用的尺度能提供“有效的”或“公平的”比较。
74.如果要从智力方面进行任何比较的话,那么对所有被比较者来说,前两个因素必须是一样的。
75.总的来说,得出这种结论是有一定程度把握的,但是必须具备两个条件:能够假定这个孩子对测试的态度和与他比较的另一个孩子的态度相同;他也没有因为缺乏别的孩子所具有的有关知识而被扣分。


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