病理学园地
您的位置:首页 > 考研试题 > 英语

2002年考研英语试题

考研英语试题(一) National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates(2002)

考生注意事项
1.考生必须严格遵守各项考场规则,得到监考人员指令后方可开始答题。
2.答题前,考生应将答题卡上的“考生姓名”、“报考单位”、“考试语种”、“考生编号”等信息填写清楚,并与准考证上的一致。
3.考研英语分为试题(一)、试题(二)。
4.本试题为试题(一),共4页(1~4页)。考生必须在规定的时间内作答。
5.试题(一)为听力部分。该部分共有A、B、C三节,所有答案都应填写或填涂在答题卡1上。A、B两节必须用蓝(黑)圆珠笔答题,注意字迹清楚。C节必须用2B铅笔按照答题卡上的要求填涂,如要改动,必须用橡皮擦干净。
6.听力考试进行时,考生应先将答案写或标记在试题上,然后在听力部分结束前专门留出的5分钟内,将答案整洁地誊写或转涂到答题卡1上。仅写或标记在试题上不给分。

Section I Listening Comprehension
Directions:
This Section is designed to test your ability to understand spoken English. You will hear a selection of recorded materials and you must answer the questions that accoMPAny them. There are three parts in this section, Part A, Part B and Part C.

Remember, while you are doing the test, you should first put down your answers in your test booklet. At the end of the listening comprehension section, you will have 5 minutes to transfer all your answers from your test booklet to ANSWER SHEET 1.
Now look at Part A in your test booklet.
Part A
Directions:

For Questions 1-5, you will hear an introduction about the life of Margaret Welc

h. While you listen, fill out the table with the information you've heard. Some

of the information has been given to you in the table. Write only 1 word or numb

er in each numbered box. You will hear the recording twice. You now have 25 seco

nds to read the table below. (5 points)


Welch's Personal Information

Place of Birth

Philadelphia

Year of Birth

1901

Transfer to Barnard University (Year)

1920

Major at University

1

Final Degree

PhD

Year of Marriage

1928

Growing Up In New Guinea Published (Year)

2

Field Study in the South Pacific (Age)

3

Main Interest

4

Professorship at Columbia Started (Year)

5
Death (Age)77


Part B


Directions:

For questions 6-10, you will hear a talk by a well-known U.S. journalist. While

you listen, complete the sentences or answer the questions. Use not more than 3

words for each answer. You will hear the recording twice. You now have 25 second

s to read the sentences and questions below. (5 points)


Besides reporters, who else were camped out for days outside the speaker's home?

6

One reporter got to the speaker's apartment pretending to pay

7
The speaker believed the reporter wanted a picture of her looking
8
Where is a correction to a false story usually placed?9


According to the speaker, the press will lost readers unless the editors and the

news directors10


Part C


Directions:

You will hear three pieces of recorded material. Before listening to each one, y

ou will have time to read the questions related to it. While listening, answer e

ach question by choosing A, B, C or D. After listening, you will have time to ch

eck your answers. You will hear each piece once only. (10 points)


Questions 11 - 13 are based on a report about children's healthy development. Yo

u now have 15 seconds to read Questions 11 - 13.


11. What unusual question may doctors ask when giving kids a checkup next t

ime? [A] How much exercise they get every day.

[B] What they are most worried about.

[C] How long their parents accoMPAny them daily.

[D] What entertainment they are interested in.


12. The academy suggests that children under age two .

[A] get enough entertainment.

[B] have more activities.

[C] receive early education.

[D] have regular checkups.


13. According to the report, children's bedrooms should .

[A] be no place for play.

[B] be near a common area.

[C] have no TV sets.

[D] have a computer for study.


Questions 14 - 16 are based on the following talk about how to save money. You n

ow have 15 seconds to read Questions 14 - 16.


14. According to the speaker, what should one pay special attention to if h

e wants to save up?

[A] Family debts.  [B] Bank savings.

[C] Monthly bills.  [D] Spending habits.


15. How much can a person save by retirement if he gives up his pack-a-da

y habit?

[A] $190,000. [B] $330,000. [C] $500,000.

 [D] $1,000,000.


16. What should one do before paying monthly bills, if he wants to accumu

late wealth?

[A] Invest into a mutual fund.

[B] Use the discount tickets.

[C] Quit his eating-out habit.

[D] Use only paper bills and save coins.


Questions 17-20 are based on an interview with Herbert A. Glieberman, a domestic

-relations lawyer. You now have 20 seconds to read Questions 17 - 20.


17. Which word best describes the lawyer's prediction of the change in di

vorce rate?

[A] Fall. [B] Rise.  [C] V-shape.


18. What do people nowadays desire to do concerning their marriage?

[A] To embrace changes of thought.

[B] To adapt to the disintegrated family life.

[C] To return to the practice in the '60s and '70s.

[D] To create stability in their lives.


19. Why did some people choose not to divorce 20 years ago?

[A] They feared the complicated procedures.

[B] They wanted to go against the trend.

[C] They were afraid of losing face.

[D] they were willing to stay together.


20. Years ago a divorced man in a coMPAny would have .

[A] been shifted around the country.

[B] had difficulty being promoted.

[C] enjoyed a happier life.

[D] tasted little bitterness of disgrace.


You now have 5 minutes to transfer all your answers from your test booklet to AN

SWER SHEET 1.


THIS IS THE END OF SECTION I

DO NOT READ OR WORK ON THE NEXT SECTION

UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO CONTINUE

绝密★启用前

考研英语试题(二)

National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates

(2002)


考生注意事项

1.考生必须严格遵守各项考场规则,得到监考人员指令后方可开始答题。
2. 考研英语分为试题(一)、试题(二)。

3.本试题为试题(二),共11页(5~15页),含有英语知识运用、阅读理解、写作三个部分。英语知识运用、阅读理解A节的答案必须用2B铅笔按要求直接填涂在答题卡1上,如要改动,必须用橡皮擦干净。阅读理解B节和写作部分必须用蓝(黑)圆珠笔在答题卡2上答题,注意字迹清楚。

4.考试结束后,考生应将答题卡1、答题卡2一并装入原试卷袋中,将试题(一)、试题(二)交给监考人员。

Section II Use of English


Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mar

k A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)


CoMPArisons were drawn between the development of television in the 20th c

entury and the diffusion of printing in the 15th and 16th centuries. Yet much ha

d happened ( 21 ) . As was discussed before, it was not ( 22 ) the 19th century that

the newspaper became the dominant pre-electronic ( 23 ) , following in the wake of the pamphlet and the book and in the ( 24 ) of the periodical. It was during the same time that the communications revolution ( 25 ) up, beginning with transport, the railway, and leading ( 26 ) through the telegraph, the telephone, radio, and motion pictures ( 27 ) the 20th-century world of the motor car and the air plane. Not everyone sees that process in ( 28 ) . It is important to do so.

It is generally recognized, ( 29 ) , that the introduction of the computer in the early 20th century, ( 30 ) by the invention of the integrated circuit during the 1960s, radically changed the process, ( 31 ) its iMPAct on the media was not immediately ( 32 ) . As time went by, computers became smaller and more powerful, and they became “personal" too, as well as ( 33 ) , with display becoming sharper and storage ( 34 ) increasing. They were thought of, lik

e people, ( 35 ) generations, with the distance between generations much ( 36 ).

It was within the computer age that the term “information society" began

to be widely used to describe the ( 37 ) within which we now live. The communicatio

ns revolution has ( 38 ) both work and leisure and how we think and feel both about place and time, but there have been ( 39 )

view about its economic, political, social and cultural implications. “Benefits

"have been weighed ( 40 ) “harmful" outcomes. And generalizations have proved difficult.


21. [A] between [B] before [C] since [D] later

22. [A] after [B] by [C] during [D] until

23. [A] means [B] method [C] medium [D] measure

24. [A] process [B] coMPAny [C] light [D] form
25. [A] gathered [B] speeded [C] worked [D] picked

26. [A] on [B] out [C] over [D] off

27. [A] of [B] for [C] beyond [D] into

28. [A] concept [B] dimension [C] effect [D] perspective

29. [A] indeed [B] hence [C] however [D] therefore

30. [A] brought [B] followed [C] stimulated [D] characterized

31. [A] unless [B] since [C] lest [D] although

32. [A] apparent [B] desirable [C] negative [D] plausible

33. [A] institution [B] universal [C] fundamental [D] instrumental

34. [A] ability [B] capability [C] capacity [D] faculty

35. [A] by means of [B] in terms of [C] with regard to[D] in line with

36. [A] deeper [B] fewer [C] nearer [D] smaller

37. [A] context [B] range [C] scope [D] territory

38. [A] regarded [B] impressed [C] influenced [D] effected

39. [A] competitive [B] controversial [C] distracting [D] irrational

40. [A] above [B] upon [C] against [D] with

Section III Reading Comprehension


Part A


Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing

A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)


Text 1


If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know

how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to

the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you

understand their situation and are in syMPAthy with their point of view. Dependi

ng on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talkin

g to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their sec

retaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comme

nt on their disorganized bosses.

Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention, of a story whic

h works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arr

ives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommo

dations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful,

polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is sudd

enly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line,

grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. “Who is that?" the new ar

rival asked St. Peter. “On, that's God," came the reply, “but sometimes he thin

ks he's a doctor."

If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a po

sition to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and i

t'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen

food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mus

tn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making dispara

ging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground

if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.

If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes m

ore natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you

can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which caus

es the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or

an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.

Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a famil

iar quote “If at first you don't succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a s

ituation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick

out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor. (4

47 words)


41. To make your humor work, you should . 

[A] take advantage of different kinds of audience.

[B] make fun of the disorganized people.

[C] address different problems to different people.

[D] show syMPAthy for your listeners.


42. The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are .

[A] impolite to new arrivals.

[B] very conscious of their godlike role.

[C] entitled to some privileges.

[D] very busy even during lunch hours.

43. It can be inferred from the text that public services .

[A] have benefited many people.

[B] are the focus of public attention.

[C] are an inappropriate subject for humor.

[D] have often been the laughing stock.


44. To achieve the desired result, humorous stories should be delivered .

[A] in well-worded language.

[B] as awkwardly as possible.

[C] in exaggerated statements.

[D] as casually as possible.


45. The best title for the text may be .

[A] Use Humor Effectively.

[B] Various Kinds of Humor.

[C] Add Humor to Speech.

[D] Different Humor Strategies.


Text 2


Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning t

ools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nast

y. That compulsion has resulted in robotics-the science of conferring various h

uman capabilities on machines. And if scientists have yet to create the mechanic

al version of science fiction, they have begun to come close.

As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent giz

mos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed mu

ch human labor. Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our bank

ing is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politene

ss for the transaction. Our subway trains are controlled by tireless robo-driver

s. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanic

s, there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone

surgery with submillimeter accuracy-far greater precision than highly skilled

physicians can achieve with their hands alone.

But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they wil

l have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least a few

decisions for themselves-goals that pose a real challenge. “While we know how

to tell a robot to handle a specific error," says Dave Lavery, manager of a robo

tics program at NASA, “we can't yet give a robot enough 'common sense' to relia

bly interact with a dynamic world."

Indeed the quest for true artificial intelligence has produced very mixed

results. Despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appe

ared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the acti

on of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend

that forecast by decades if not centuries.

What they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain's

roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented-and human perce

ption far more complicated-than previously imagined. They have built robots tha

t can recognize the error of a machine panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a

controlled factory environment. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changin

g scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneo

usly focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single s

uspicious face in a big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can't

approach that kind of ability, and neuroscientists still don't know quite how w

e do it. 


46. Human ingenuity was initially demonstrated in .

[A] the use of machines to produce science fiction.

[B] the wide use of machines in manufacturing industry.

[C] the invention of tools for difficult and dangerous work.

[D] the elite's cunning tackling of dangerous and boring work.
47. The word “gizmos" (line 1, paragraph 2) most probably means .

[A] programs. [B] experts. [C] devices.

 [D] creatures.


48. According to the text, what is beyond man's ability now is to design

a robot that can .

[A] fulfill delicate tasks like performing brain surgery.

[B] interact with human beings verbally.

[C] have a little common sense.

[D] respond independently to a changing world.


49. Besides reducing human labor, robots can also .

[A] make a few decisions for themselves.

[B] deal with some errors with human intervention.

[C] improve factory environments.

[D] cultivate human creativity.


50. The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are .
[A] expected to copy human brain in internal structure.

[B] able to perceive abnormalities immediately.

[C] far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant information.

[D] best used in a controlled environment.


Text 3


Could the bad old days of economic decline be about to return? Since OPEC

agreed to supply-cuts in March, the price of crude oil has jumped to almost $26

a barrel, up from less than $10 last December. This near-tripling of oil prices

calls up scary memories of the 1973 oil shock, when prices quadrupled, and 1979-

80, when they also almost tripled. Both previous shocks resulted in double-digit

inflation and global economic decline. So where are the headlines warning of gl

oom and doom this time?

The oil price was given another push up this week when Iraq suspended oil

exports. Strengthening economic growth, at the same time as winter grips the nor

thern hemisphere, could push the price higher still in the short term.

Yet there are good reasons to expect the economic consequences now to be l

ess severe than in the 1970s. In most countries the cost of crude oil now accoun

ts for a smaller share of the price of petrol than it did in the 1970s. In Europ

e, taxes account for up to four-fifths of the retail price, so even quite big ch

anges in the price of crude have a more muted effect on pump prices than in the

past.

Rich economies are also less dependent on oil than they were, and so less

sensitive to swings in the oil price. Energy conservation, a shift to other fuel

s and a decline in the importance of heavy, energy-intensive industries have red

uced oil consumption. Software, consultancy and mobile telephones use far less o

il than steel or car production. For each dollar of GDP (in constant prices) ric

h economies now use nearly 50% less oil than in 1973. The OECD estimates in its

latest Economic Outlook that, it oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full yea

r, coMPAred with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich ec

onomies by only 0.25-0.5% of GDP. That is less than one-quarter of the income lo

ss in 1974 or 1980. On the other hand, oil-importing emerging economies-to whic

h heavy industry has shifted-have become more energy-intensive, and so could be

more seriously squeezed.

One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unl

ike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of genera

l commodity-price inflation and global excess demand. A sizable portion of the w

orld is only just emerging from economic decline. The Economist's commodity pric

e index is broadly unchanging from a year ago. In 1973 commodity prices jumped b-

y 70%, and in 1979 by almost 30%. 


51. The main reason for the latest rise of oil price is .

[A] global inflation. [B] reduction in supply.

[C] fast growth in economy. [D] Iraq's suspension of exports.


52. It can be inferred from the text that the retail price of petrol will

go up dramatically if .

[A] price of crude rises. [B] commodity prices rise.

 [C] consumption rises.  [D] oil taxes rise.
53. The estimates in Economic Outlook show that in rich countries .

 [A] heavy industry becomes more energy-intensive.

[B] income loss mainly results from fluctuating crude oil prices.

[C] manufacturing industry has been seriously squeezed.

[D] oil price changes have no significant iMPAct on GDP.


54. We can draw a conclusion from the text that .

[A] oil-price shocks are less shocking now.

[B] inflation seems irrelevant to oil-price shocks.

[C] energy conservation can keep down the oil prices.

[D] the price rise of crude leads to the shrinking of heavy industry.
55. From the text we can see that the writer seems .

[A] optimistic.  [B] sensitive. [C] gloomy.

 [D] scared.
Text 4


The Supreme Court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry importan

t implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suff

ering.

Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assis

ted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of “double eff

ect," a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects-

a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen-is permissible i

f the actor intends only the good effect.

Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high dos

es of morphine to control terminally ill patients' pain, even though increasing

dosages will eventually kill the patient.

Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the pri

nciple will shield doctors who “until now have very, very strongly insisted tha

t they could not give patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that

might hasten death."

George Annas, chair of the health law department at Boston University, mai

ntains that, as long as a doctor prescribes a drug for a legitimate medical purp

ose, the doctor has done nothing illegal even if the patient uses the drug to ha

sten death. “It's like surgery," he says. “We don't call those deaths homicide

s because the doctors didn't intend to kill their patients, although they risked t

heir death. If you're a physician, you can risk your patient's suicide as long a

s you don't intend their suicide."

On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assis

ted-suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom m

odern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.

Just three weeks before the Court's ruling on physician-assisted suicide,

the National Academy of Science (NAS) released a two-volume report, Approaching

Death: Improving Care at the End of Life. It identifies the undertreatment of pa

in and the aggressive use of “ineffectual and forced medical procedures that ma

y prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end-of-l

ife care.

The profession is taking steps to require young doctors to train in hospic

es, to test knowledge of aggressive pain management therapies, to develop a Medi

care billing code for hospital-based care, and to develop new standards for asse

ssing and treating pain at the end of life.

Annas says lawyers can play a key role in insisting that these well-meanin

g medical initiatives translate into better care. “Large numbers of physicians

seem unconcerned with the pain their patients are needlessly and predictably suff

ering," to the extent that it constitutes “systematic patient abuse." He says m

edical licensing boards “must make it clear…that painful deaths are presumptive

ly ones that are incompetently managed and should result in license suspension."




56. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that .

[A] doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients' pain.

 [B] it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives.

[C] the Supreme Court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide.

[D] patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide.


57. Which of the following statements its true according to the text?

[A] Doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients' death.

[B] Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery.

[C] The Court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed.

[D] A doctor's medication is no longer justified by his intentions.


58. According to the NAS's report, one of the problems in end-of-life care is .

[A] prolonged medical procedures.

[B] inadequate treatment of pain.

[C] systematic drug abuse.

[D] insufficient hospital care.


59. Which of the following best defines the word “aggressive" (line 3, p

aragraph 7)?

[A] Bold.  [B] Harmful.  [C] Careless. 
[D]Desperate.
60. George Annas would probably agree that doctors should be punished if they .

[A] manage their patients incompetently.

[B] give patients more medicine than needed.

[C] reduce drug dosages for their patients.

[D] prolong the needless suffering of the patients.


Part B


Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments int

o Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 po

ints)


Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be s

olved by physical and biological technology alone. What is needed is a technolog

y of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a te

chnology might be drawn. 61) One difficulty is that almost all of what i

s called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, tra

its of character, human nature, and so on. Physics and biology once follo

wed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them. 62) The behav

ioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem

to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been

hard to find. The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained

obscure. It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is difficult t

o discover and analyze. 63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated
only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the

environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only b

eginning to be recognized and studied. As the interaction between organis

m and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states o

f mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions

, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available. It will not solve

our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views, and t

hese are strongly entrenched. Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty. 64)

They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of trad

itional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsibl

e for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. A scientific ana

lysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment. It also ra

ises questions concerning “values." Who will use a technology and to what ends?

65) Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will conti

nue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.
Section IV Writing


66. Directions:

Study the following picture carefully and write an essay entitled “Cultures

-National and International".

In the essay you should

1) describe the picture and interpret its meaning, and

2) give your comment on the phenomenon.

You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)


An American girl in traditional Chinese costume(服装)


纠错留言 | 网站导航 | 站内搜索 | 关于我们 | 联系站长
Copyright©2006-2017 病理学园地*Pathology Information Web