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2000年考研英语试题

National Entrance Test of English For MA/MS Candidates(2000)(NETEM 2000)Part I Structure and VocabularySection A

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences,there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil. (5 points)

Example:

I have been to the Great Wall three times1979.[A]from[B]after[C]for[D]sinceThe sentence should read, “I have been to the Great Wall three times since 1979.” Therefore, you should choose [D].

Sample Answer

[A][B][C][■]

1.As I'll be away for at least a year, I'd appreciatefrom you now and then telling me how everyone is getting along.

[A]hearing

[B]to hear

[C]to be hearing

[D]having heard

 

2.Greatly agitated, I rushed to the apartment and tried the door,to find it locked.

[A]just

[B]only

[C]hence

[D]thus

 

3.Doctors see a connection between increased amounts of leisure time spentand the increased number of cases of skin cancer.

[A]to sunbathe

[B]to have sunbathed

[C]having sunbathed

[D]sunbathing

4.Unless you sign a contract with the insurance company for your goods, you are not entitleda repayment for the goods damaged in delivery.

[A]to

[B]with

[C]for

[D]on

5.On a rainy day I was driving north through VermontI noticed a young man holding up a sign reading “Boston”.

[A]which

[B]where

[C]when

[D]that

6.Chrisitie stared angrily at her boss and turned away, as thoughout of the office

[A]went

[B]gone

[C]to go

[D]would go

7.The roles expectedold people in such a setting give too few psychological satisfactions for normal happiness.

[A]of

[B]on

[C]to

[D]with

 

8.Talk to anyone in the drug industry, you'll soon discover that the science of genetics is the higgest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered.

[A]or

[B]and

[C]for

[D]so

 

9.It wasn't so much that I disliked herthat I just was't interested in the whole business.

[A]rather

[B]so

[C]than

[D]as

 

10.Countless divorced politicians would have been elected out of office years ago had they even thought of a divorce, let aloneone.

[A]getting

[B]to get

[C]gotten

[D]get

 

Setion B

Directions:

Each of the following sentences has four underlined parts marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Identify the part of the sentence that is incorrect and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(5 points)

Example:

A number of[A] foreign visitors were taken [B] to the industrial exhibition, which [C] they saw[D] many new products.

Part[C]is wrong. The sentence should read, “A number of foreign visitors were taken to the industrial exhibition. where they saw many new products.” So you should choose [C].

Sample Answer

[A][B][■][D]

 

11.Having isolated[A] on a remote island. with[B] little work to occupy[C] them, the soldiers suffered from boredom and low spirits[D].

12.If the letter to be mailed[A]was placed[B] on the writing table an hour ago, it is[C]certain being[D] there now.

13.The ruling[A] party could even lose its[B] majority in the lower house of parliament, started[C] a period of prolonged struggling[D].

14.The mechanisms at[A] work are manifest[B] in the tendency for such physical activity to[C]utilize the potential[C] harmful constituents of the stress response.

15.In[A] the long run, however, this hurry to shed[B] fulltime staff may be more[C] harmful to[D] industry as it is to the workforce.

16.See to it[A] that you include in[B] the examination paper whatever[C] questions they didn't know the answer[D] last time.

17.Most newspapers,while devoting[A] the major part of its[B]space to recent events, usually manage to find room[C] on the inside pages for articles on[D] some interesting topics.

18.One sign by which[A] you are making progress in an art[B]such as painting or photography is that[C] you begin to realize how much there is[D] to learn.

19.The ideal listener stays both inside and outside[A] the music at the moment it is played and enjoying[B] it almost as much as[C] the composer at the moment he composes[D].

20.Continued[A] exposure to stress has been linked to worsened[B] functioning of the immune system, leaving[C] a person more liable for[D] infection.

Section C

Directions:

Beneath each of the following sentences, there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D].

Choose the one that best completes the sentence.Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(10 points)Example:The lost car of the Lees was found in the woods off the higway.

[A]vanished[B]scattered[C]abandoned[D]rejected

The sentence should read,“The lost car of the Lees was found abandoned in the woods off the highway.” Therefore, you should choose [C].

Sample Answer

[A][B][■][D]

21.He spoke so that even his opponents were won over by his arguments.

[A]bluntly[B]convincingly[C]emphatically[D]determinedly22.France'sof nuclear testing in the South Pacific last month triggered political debates and mass demonstrations.

[A]assumption[B]consumption[C]presumption[D]resumption23.The 215page manuscript, circulated to publishers last october,an outburst of interest.

[A]flared[B]glittered[C]sparked[D]flashed24.His efforts to bring about a reconciliation between the two parties.

[A]came off

[B]came on

[C]came round

[D]came down

25.The system was redesigned to embrace the network and eventuallyit in a profitable direction.

[A]adapt[B]control[C]install[D]steer26.The capital intended to broaden the export base andefficiency gains from international trade was channeled instead into uneconomic import substitution.

[A]adapt

[B]control

[C]install

[D]steer

27.It is announced that a wallet has been found and can be at the manager's office.

[A]declared

[B]obtained

[C]reclaimed

[D]recognized

 

28.When Imy senses, I found myself wrapped up in bed in my little room, with Grandma bending over me.

[A]woke up

[B]took to

[C]picked up

[D]came to

29.The American society isan exceedingly shaky foundation of natural resources, which is connected with the possibility of a worsening environment.

[A]established on[B]affiliated to

[C]originated from[D]incorporated with

30.I am notwith my roommate but I have to share the room with her, because I have nowhere else to live.

[A]concerned

[B]compatible

[C]considerate

[D]complied

31.At first,the of color pictures over a long distance seemed impossible, but, with painstaking efforts and at great expense, it became a reality.

[A]transaction

[B]transmission

[C]transformation

[D]transition

32.When the committeto details, the proposed plan seemed impractical.

[A]got down

[B]set about

[C]went off

[D]came up

33 to some parts of South America is still difficult,because parts of the continent are still covered with thick forests.

[A]Orientation

[B]Access

[C]Procession

[D]Voyage

34.Mr.Smith had an unusual: he was first an office clerk, then a sailor, and ended up as a school teacher.

[A]profession

[B]occupation

[C]position

[D]career

35 The mayor is a woman with greatand therefore deserves our political and financial support.

[A]intention[B]instinct[C]integrity[D]intensity36.The English weather defies forecast and hence is a source of interest and

to everyone.

[A]speculation

[B]attribution

[C]utilization

[D]proposition

37.The fact that the golden eagle usually builds its nest on some high cliffsit almost impossible to obtain the eggs or the young birds.

[A]renders

[B]reckons

[C]regards

[D]relates

38.To impress a future employer,one should dress neatly, be, and display interest in the job.

[A]swift

[B]instant

[C]timely

[D]punctual

39.You don't have to install this radio in your new car: it's anextra.

[A]excessive

[B]optional

[C]additional

[D]arbitrary

40.We were pleased to note that the early morning delivery didn'tto the traffic jam of the busy city.

[A]aid

[B]amount

[C]add

[D]attribute

 

Part Ⅱ Cloze Test

Directions:

For each numbered blank in the following passage,there are four choices marked

[A], [B], [C] and [D]. Choose the best one and mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.(10 points)

If a farmer wishes to succeed, he must try to keep a wide gap between his consumption and his production. He must storea large quantity of grain

41 consuming all his grain immediately. He can continue to support himself and his family

42 he produces a surplus. He must use this surplus in three ways:as seed for sowing, as an insurance

43 the unpredictable effects of bad weather and as a commodity which he must sell in order to

44 old agricultural implements and obtain chemical fertilizers to

45 the soil. He may also need money to construct irrigation

46and improve his farm in other ways.If no surplus is available, a farmer cannot be

47 . He must either sell some of his property or

48 extra funds in the form of loans. Naturally he will try to borrow money at a low

49 of interest, but loans of this kind are not 50 obtainable.

41.[A]other than[B]as well as[C]instead of[D]more than42.[A]only if[B]much as[C]long before[D]ever since43.[A]for[B]against[C]of [D]towards44.[A]replace [B]purchase [C]supplement [D]dispose

45.[A]enhance[B]mix[C]feed[D]raise

46.[A]vessels[B]routes[C]paths[D]channels

47.[A]selfconfident[B]selfsufficient

[C]selfsatisfied[D]selfrestrained

48.[A]search[B]save[C]offer[D]seek

49.[A]proportion[B]percentage[C]rate[D]ratio

50.[A]genuinely[B]obviously[C]presumably[D]frequently

 

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension

Directions:

Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question there are four answers marked [A], [B], [C] and [D]. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each of the questions. Then mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 by blackening the corresponding letter in the brackets with a pencil.

(40 points)

Passage 1

A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.

It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful.By the mid1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics,had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith.(Now there is none:Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July.) Foreignmade cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market. America's machinetool industry was on the ropes. For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had invented and which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business sycle. Selfdoubt has yielded to blind pride. “American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quickwitted,”according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Govermment. “It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity,” says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a thinktank in Washington,DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will book back on this period as “a golden age of business management in the United States.”

51.The U.S.achieved its predominance after World War Ⅱ because.[A]it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal[B]its domestic market was eight times larger than before[C]the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors[D]the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy

52.The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American.[A]TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market[B]semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises[C]machinetool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions[D]auto industry had lost part of its domestic market

53.What can be inferred from the passage?

[A]It is human nature to shift between selfdoubt and blind pride.

[B]Intense competition may contribute to economic progress.

[C]The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.

[D]A long history of success may pave the way for further development.

54.The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S.economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the

[A]turning of the business cycle

[B]restructuring of industry

[C]improved business management

[D]success in education

 

Passage 2

Being a man has always beeen dangerous. There are about 105 males born for every 100 females,but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity,and among 70yearolds there are twice as many women as men. But the great universal of male mortality is being changed. Now, boy babies survive almost as well as girls do. This means that, for the first time, there will be an excess of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. More important, another chance for natural selection has been removed.Fifty years ago,the chance of a bady(particularly a boy baby)surviving depended on its weight.A kilogram too light or too heavy meant almost certain death. Today it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due to genes, one more agent of evolution has gone.

There is another way to commit evolutionary suicide: stay alive, but have fewer children. Few people are as fertile as in the past. Except in some religious communities, very few women have 15 children.Nowadays the number of births, like the age of death, has become average.Most of us have roughly the same number of offspring.Again, differences between people and the opportunity for natural selection to take advantage of it have diminished. India shows what is happening. The country offers wealth for a few in the great cities and poverty for the remaining tribal peoples. The grand mediocrity of today-everyone being the same in survival and number of offspring-means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in uppermiddleclass India compared to the tribes.

For us, this means that evolution is over; the biological Utopia has arrived. Strangely,it has involved little physical change.No other species fills so many places in nature.But in the past 100,000 years-even the past 100 years-our lives have been transformed but our bodies have not. We did not evolve,because machines and society did it for us. Darwin had a phrase to describe those ignorant of evolution:they “look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship,as at something wholly beyond his comprehension.” No doubt we will remember a 20th century way of life beyond comprehension for its ugliness. But however amazed our descendants may be at how far from Utopia we were,they will look just like us.

55.What used to be the danger in being a man according to the first pargraph?

[A]A lack of mates.

[B]A fierce competition.

[C]A lower survival rate.

[D]A defective gene.

56.What does the example of India illustrate?

[A]Wealthy people tend to have fewer children than poor people.

[B]Natural selection hardly works among the rich and the poor.

[C]The middle class population is 80% smaller than that of the tribes.

[D]India is one of the countries with a very high birth rate.

57.The author argues that our bodies have stopped evolving because.

[A]life has been improved by technological advance

[B]the number of female babies has been declining

[C]our species has reached the highest stage of evolution

[D]the difference between wealth and poverty is disappearing58.Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?

[A]Sex Ratio Changes in Human Evolution

[B]Ways of Continuing Man's Evolution

[C]The Evolutionary Future of Nature

[D]Human Evolution Going NowherePassage 3

When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion,it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at,for,however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today,it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be-even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right-it can hardly be classed as Literature.

This,in brief.is what the Futurist says:for a century,past conditions of life have been conditionally speeding up,till now we live in a world of noise and violence and speed.Consequently,our feelings, thoughts and emotions have undergone a corresponding change. This speeding up of life,says the Futurist,requires a new form of expresion. We must speed up our literature too,if we want to interpret moderm stress. We must pour out a large stream of essential words,unhampered by stops,or qualifying adjectives,or finite verbs. Instead of describing sounds we must make up words that imitate them;we must use many sizes of type and different colored inks on the same page,and shorten or lengthen words at will.

Certainly their descriptions of battles are confused. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river-and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers:‘Pluff! Pluff! A hundred and eighty five kilograms.’

This, though it fulfills the laws and requirements of Futurist poetry, can hardly be classed as Literature. All the same, no thinking man can refuse to accept their first proposition:that a great change in our emotional life calls for a change of expression. The whole question is really this: have we essentially changed?

59.This passage is mainly.

[A]a survey of nwe approaches to art

[B]a review of Futurist poetry

[C]about merits of the Futurist movement

[D]about laws and requirements of literature60.When a novel literary idea appears,people should try to.

[A]determine its purposes

[B]ignore its flaws

[C]follow the new fashions

[D]accept the principles61.Futurists claim that we must.

[A]increase the production of literature

[B]use poetry to relieve modern stress

[C]develop new modes of expression

[D]avoid using adjectives and verbs

62.The author believes that Futurist poetry is.

[A]based on reasonable principles

[B]new and acceptable to ordinary people

[C]indicative of a basic change in human nature

[D]more of a transient phenomenon than literature

Passage 4

Aimlessness has hardly been typical of the postwar Japan whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe. But increasingly the Japanese are seeing a decline of the traditional work moral values. Ten years ago young people were hardworking and saw their jobs as their primary reason for being,but now Japan has largely fulfilled its economic needs,and young people don't know where they should go next.

The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the maledominated job market have limited the opportunities of teenagers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Japan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. In a recent survey,it was found that only 24.5 percent of Japanese students were fully satisfied with school life,compared with 67.2 percent of students in the United States. In addition,far more Japanese workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs than did their counterparts in the 10 other countries surveyed.While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics,Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and selfexpression.“Those things that do not show up in the test scores梡ersonality, ability, courage or humanity梐re completely ignored,”says Toshiki Kaifu, chairman of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party's education committee.“Frustration against this kind of thing leads kids to drop out and run wild.” Last year Japan experienced 2,125 incidents of school violence,iscluding 929 assaults on teachers. Amid the outcry,many conservative leaders are seeking a return to the prewar emphasis on moral education. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama,who was then education minister,raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War Ⅱ had weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents.”

But that may have more to do with Japanese lifestyles. “In Japan,”says educator Yoko Muro, “It's never a question of whether you enjoy your job and your life, but only how much you can endure.” With economic growth has come centralization; fully 76 percent of Japan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, twogeneration households. Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels to and from work) and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell. In the past decade, the Japanese divorce rate, while still well below that of the United States, has increased by more than 50 percent, and suicides have increased by nearly onequarter.63.In the Westerners' eyes, the postwar Japan was.

[A]under aimless development

[B]a positive example

[C]a rival to the West

[D]on the decline64.According to the author,what may chiefly be responsible for the moral decline of Japanese society?

[A]Women's participation in social activities is limited.

[B]More workers are dissatisfied with their jobs.

[C]Excessive emphasis has been placed on the basics.

[D]The lifestyle has been influenced by Western values.

65.Which of the following is true according to the author?

[A]Japanese education is praised for helping the young climb the social ladder.

[B]Japanese education is characterized by mechanical learning as well as creativity.

[C]More stress should be placed on the cultivation of creativity.

[D]Dropping out leads to frustration against test taking.66.The change in Japanese lifestyle is revealed in the fact that.

[A]the young are less tolerant of discomforts in life

[B]the divorce rate in Japan exceeds that in the U.S.

[C]the Japanese endure more than ever before

[D]the Japanese appreciate their present life

Passage 5

If ambition is to be well regarded,the rewards of ambitionwealth, distinction,control over one's destinymust be deemed worthy of the sacrifices made on ambition's behalf. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality,it must be widely shared:and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired,the educated not least among them. In an odd way,however,it is the educated who have claimed to have given up on ambition as an ideal. What is odd is that they have perhaps most benefited from ambitionif not always their own then that of their parents and grandparents. There is a heavy note of hypocrisy in this, a case of closing the barn door after the horses have escapedwith the educated themselves riding on them.

Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes,European travel,BMWsthe locations,place names and name brands may change,but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years age. What has happened is that people cannot confess fully to their dreams,as easily and openly as once they could,lest they be thought pushing,acquisitive and vulgar.Instead,we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles,which now more than ever seem in ample supply:the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home;the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in threestar restaurants;the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life,whose own children are enrolled in private schools.For such people and many more perhaps not so exceptional,the proper formulation is,“Succeed at all costs but avoid appearing ambitious.”

The attacks on ambition are many and come from various angles;its public defenders are few and unimpressive,where they are not extremely unattractive.As a result,the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young,is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States. This does not mean that ambition is at an end,that people no longer feel its stirrings and promptings, but only that, no longer openly honored, it is less openly professed. Consequences follow from this,of course,some of which are that ambition is driven underground,or made sly.Such,then,is the way things stand:on the left angry critics,on the right stupid supporters,and in the middle,as usual,the majority of earnest people trying to get on in life.

67.It is generally believed that ambition may be well regarded if.

[A]Its returns well compensate for the sacrifices

[B]it is rewarded with money,fame and power

[C]its goals are spiritual rather than material

[D]it is shared by the rich and the famous

68.The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that it is .

[A]customary of the educated to discard ambition in words

[B]too late to check ambition once it has been let out

[C]dishonest to deny ambition after the fulfillment of the goal

[D]impractical for the educated to enjoy benefits from ambition

69.Some people do not openly admit they have ambition because.

[A]tbey think of it as immoral

[B]their pursuits are not fame or wealth

[C]ambition is not closely related to material benefits

[D]they do not want to appear greedy and contemptible70.From the last paragraph the conclusion can be drawn that ambition should be maintained.

[A]secretly and vigorously

[B]openly and enthusiastically

[C]easily and momentarily

[D]verbally and spiritually

Part IV English-Chinese Translation

Directions:

Read the following passage carefully and then translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.Your translation must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(15 points)

Governments throughout thd world act on the assumption that the welfare of their people depends largely on the economic strength and wealth of the community.

71) Under modern conditions,this requires varying measures of centralized control and hence the help of specialized scientists such as economists and operational research experts. 72) Furthermore,it is obvious that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industy,and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds. It also means that governments are increasingly compelled to interfere in these sectors in order to step up production and ensure that it is utilized to the best advantage.For example,they may encourage research in various ways,including the setting up of their own research centers;they may alter the structure of education,or interfere in order to reduce the wastage of natural resources or tap resources hitherto unexploited;or they may cooperate directly in the growing number of international projects related to science,economics and industry.In any case,all such interventions are heavily dependent on scientific advice and also scientific and technological manpower of all kinds.

37)Owing to the remarkable development in masscommunications,people everywhere are feeling new wants and are being exposed to new customs and ideas,while governments are often forced to introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above.At the same time,the normal rate of social change throughout the world is taking place at a vastly accelerated speed compared with the past. For example, 74)in the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of industrialization-with all the far-reaching changes in social patterns that followed 棗 was spread over nearly a century,whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so.All this has the effect of building up unusual pressures and tensions within the community and consequently presents serious problems for the governments concerned.75)Additional social stresses may also occur because of the population explosion or problems arising from mass migration movements棗themselves made relatively easy nowadays by modern means of transport. As a result of all these factors, governments are becoming increasingly dependent on biologists and social scientists for planning the appropriate programs and putting them into effect.

Part V Writing(15 points)

76.Directions:

A.Study the following two pictures carefully and write an essay of at least 150 words.

B.Your essay must be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

C.Your essay should meet the requirements below:

1.Describe the pictures.

2.Deduce the purpost of the drawer of the pictures.

3.Suggest countermeasures.

2000年考研英语试题

评分标准及参考答案

阅卷须知:

1.阅卷一律以本答案为准,不得改动,不得另行制定答案。

2.保持卷面整洁;阅卷人应以高度负责的精神认真仔细地批阅试卷。

3.第Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ部分采用机器阅卷。

4.第Ⅳ、Ⅴ部分采用人工阅卷。阅卷人一律用红笔批改,错误处用横线划出,将每道大题得分填入大题得分格内,并填入答题纸总计分格内。要求计分正确、清楚。每题必须由两位阅卷人员评阅,并在大题得分格内签上名。第Ⅳ、Ⅴ部分两大题计分时,0.5分者不进位,但总分累计时可进位,作整数填入总计分格。

5.计分以小题为单位,每小题的扣分不得超过该题的分值。

评分标准:

Ⅰ.语法结构与词汇:

A 节语法填空:10题,每题0.5分,共5分。

B 节语法辩错:10题,每题0.5,共5分。

C 节词语填空:20题,每题0.5分,共10分。

Ⅱ.完形填空:10题,每题1分,共10分。

Ⅲ.阅读理解选择:20题,每题2分,共40分。

以上三大题采用机器阅卷。

Ⅳ.英译汉:5题,每题3分,共15分。

·如果句子译文扭曲原文意思,其得分最多不得超过1分。

·如出现两种或两种以上正确译法,给分;其中一种译法错误者,酌情扣分,扣分最多不超过1分。

·汉语错别字,不个别扣分,按整篇累计扣分。在不影响意思的前提下,满三个错别字扣0.5分,无0.25扣分。

Ⅴ.写作:1题,15分。

本题以通篇分档计分,计分标准如下:

15?3分内容切题,包括题中所列三方面的内容;清楚表达其内涵,文字连贯;句式有变化,句子结构和用词正确。文章长度符合要求。

12?0分内容切题,包括题中所列三方面的内容;比较清楚地表达其内涵,文字基本连贯;句式有一定变化,句子结构和用词无重大错误。文章长度符合要求。

9?分内容切题,基本包括题中所列三方面的内容;基本清楚地表达其内涵;句子结构和用词有少量错误。文章长度符合要求。

6?分内容基本切题,基本包含题中所列三方面的内容,语句可以理解,但有较多的句子结构和用词错误。文章长度基本符合要求。

3?分基本按要求写作,但只有少数句子可理解。

0分 文不切题,语句混乱,无法理解。

参考答案:

Part I Structure and Vocabulary(20 points)

Section A

1.A 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.C 6.C 7.A 8.B 9.D 10.C

Section B

11.A 12.D 13.C 14.D 15.C 16.D 17.B 18.A 19.B 20.D

Section C

21.B 22.D 23.C 24.A 25.D 26.A 27.C 28.D 29.A 30.B 31.B 32.A 33.B 34.D 35.C 36.A 37.A 38.D 39.B 40.C

Part Ⅱ Cloze Test(10 points)

41.C 42.A 43.B 44.A 45.C 46.D 47.B 48.D 49.C 50.D

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension(40 points)

51.C 52.D 53.B 54.A 55.C 56.B 57.A 58.D 59.B 60.A 61.C 62.D 63.B 64.D 65.C 66.A 67.A 68.C 69.D

70.B

Part Ⅳ English-Chinese Translation(15 points)

71.在现代条件下,这需要程度不同的中央控制,从而就需要获得诸如经济学和运筹学等领域专家的协助。

72.再者,显而易见的是一个国家的经济实力与其工农业生产效率密切相关,而效率的提高则又有赖于各种科技人员的努力。

73.大众通讯的显著发展使各地的人们不断感到有新的需求,不断接触到新的习俗和思想,由于上述原因,政*府常常得出更多的革新。

74.在先期实现工业化的欧洲国家中,其工业化进程以及随之而来的各种深刻的社会结构变革,持续了大约一个世纪之久,而如今一个发展中国家在十年左右就可能完成这个过程。

75.由于人口的猛增或大量人口流动(现代交通工具使这种流动相对容易)选成的种种问题也会对社会造成新的压力。

Part Ⅴ Writing (15 points)

76.(略)

 

 

2000年考研英语试题答案详解

第一部分结构与词汇

1.选 [A] 。本题考查动词 appreciate 的用法及动词的时态。 appreciate (感激)后面用动词的动名词,即 ing 形式,所以所给选项中可以排除 [B] [C] 两项。主句中的 now and then (时常)表明本句的动名词应用一般现在时,所以 [D] 项可以排除。剩余的[A]项为唯一正确选项。本句的意思是:由于我要离开至少一年的时间,能不时地收到你的来信,告诉我各位的情况,我会十分感激。

2.选 [B] ,本题考查动词不定式作结果状语的用法。所给四个选项中只有 only 后面可接动词不定式,表示某种不好的,出乎意外的结果。类似的例子还有: They lifted a rock,only to drop it on their own feet (他们搬石头砸了自己的脚)。本句的大意是:激动倍至,我冲向寓所,敲了敲门,结果只发现它是锁着的。

3.选 [D] 。本题考查动词 spend 后面应接的动词形式。 spend (花费时间、精力、金钱)后面常用 on 接名词的形式,例如 spend two hours on maths; 或者用 in 接动词的 ing 形式,例如 spend two hours in doing his homework 。在这种情况下, in 有时可以省略。本题即是第二种情况,介词 in 被省略了, spent (in) sunbathing 在句子中作 leisure time 的后置定语。本句的大意是:医生发现人们用于太阳浴闲暇时间的增多和皮肤癌病例的增加有联系。

4.选 [A] 。本题考查动词搭配。 be entitled to sth. 相当于 be given the right to get sth. (有权利获得……),所以本题的正确选项只能是 [A] 。本句的大意是:除非你和保险公司联系。货物签一份合约,要不你无权获得对在运送过程中受损货物给予的赔偿。

5.选 [C] 。本题考查 when 作连词时的一个特殊用法。在本句中 when 相当于 at this time 。本句的大意是:一个雨天我驾车向北行驶经过佛蒙特,这时我注意一个年轻人举着一块写有“波士顿”的牌子。 [B] 项 where 是一个强干扰项。从语法角度考虑, where 作为关系副词可以用于句中引导定语从句,修饰名词 Vermont ,但 where 用于句中时与本句的时态及意义不符,本句的主句时态是过去进行时,强调“我正驾车行驶经过 Vermont ”时的情景,而不是对 Vermont 这一地点进行描绘,所以 [B] 项虽然从语法上讲合理,但仍不是最佳的选项。

6.选 [C] 。本题考查 as though 后面所跟动词的形式。 as though (as if) ,“似乎好像”的意思,后面可接 to 引导的动词不定式,所以本题只能选 [C] 。本句的大意是: Christie 生气地盯着她的老板,然后转过身去,好像要走出办公室似的。另外, as though (if) 后也可引导从句,但这个从句一般要用虚拟语气,例如:He talks as if he knew all about it 。

7.选 [A] 。本题考查动词搭配。 expect 本身是一个及物动词,常用的结构是 expect sb. to do sth. ,但expect另一个典型的用法是 expect sth. of sb.,与上述的动词不定式结构表示相同的意思。本题即是考查 expect 的第二种用法, expected 用来作后置定语,修饰 roles ,正常的语序应该为 expect the roles of old people 。8.选 [B] 。本题考查句型结构。“祈使句 + and / or + 简单句”是一个很常用的句型。本句中的talk to anyone in the drug industry 是一个祈使句,它与后面的简单句“you'll soon discover...”之间是顺承关系,所以用 and 。如果两个句子之间是连接关系,则用 or (否则)。例如: Hurry up , or you'll be late for the meeting. (抓紧时间,否则你开会会迟到的)。本句的大意是:和制药业的任何人交谈,你会很快发现科学是自从青霉素发现后的促进药物研究发展的最大课题。

9.选 [D] 。本题考查比较级的基本用法。本句的基本结构仍然是 not so ... as ...,只是so和as后面出现了 much that I disliked her 和 that I just wasn't interested in the whole business 这样的两个从句。只要能够辨认出本句的基本结构,能做出正确的选择。本句的大意是:与其说我不喜欢她,不如说我对整件事务根本不感兴趣。

10.选 [C] 。本题考查 let alone 的用法。 let alone 相当于 not to mention ,它后面所连接的成分一般可在其前的句子中找到相对应的内容,例如, There were eight people in the room, let alone a pile of luggage and two dogs (房间里有八个人,更不用说一堆行李和两条狗了)。这一句中 let alone 后面的名词与 there be 句型中的 eight people 相对应,因此用了统一的名词形式,本题中 let alone 后面的动词形式应与条件状语从句的 thought of 的形式一致,所以用过去分词 gotten. 即 [C] 项。本句是一个虚拟语气句,条件状语从句在句子后半部分,省略了 if ,从而把 had 提到主语前面,表示与过去的事实相反。本句的大意是:数年前,如果政治家有离婚的念头,更不用说离婚成功了,他们中会有无数的人在选举中遭受失败。

11.选 [A] 。本句考查现在分词的用法。句子的主语是 the soldiers ,他们是 isolate 的承受者,因此应用其被动形式,即 Having been isolated 。本句的大意是:战士们待在一个与世隔绝的偏僻孤岛上,无所事事;他们因寂寞和无聊而痛苦,情绪低落。

12.选 [D] 。本句考查句子时态, be 动词在一般现在时中表存在时,无须用 being 形式, [D] being 去掉后,本句就成为正确句子。 [A] 用动词不定式的被动语态修饰 the letter 是正确的,其他 [B] [C] 两项都用了正确的时态和语态。本句的大意是:如果那封要邮寄的信一小时以前还放在写字台上,它现在肯定还在那儿。13.选 [C] 。应改为 and started 。从句子的结构来看, [C] 项 started 和句子中的 could lose 应是并列成分,共同构成句子的谓语,所以在第一个分句后应加 and 来连接第二个谓语动词。本句的大意是:统治党甚至会失去在国会下院的大多数票,从而开始了一段长时间的斗争。

14.选 [D] 。应改为 potentially 。 harmful 是一个形容词,修饰它的词应当用副词形式,所以 potential 应改为其副词形式 potentially 。 at work 是一个固定词组,意思是:工作中的,运行中的。 manifest (表示明显)既可以作形容词,又可以作动词。在本句中它用的是其形容词形式。 for such physical activity 与后面用的动词不定式 to 构成动词不定式的复合结构,也是正确的,所以四个选项中只有 [D] 项是错误的。

15.选 [C] 。应改为 as 。与本张试卷中的第9题类似,本句的基本结构的是 as ... as ... 。如果 [C] 项正确的话,那么后半句中的 as 应改为 than ,构成比较级。 [B] 项 to shed 的意思是:开除,驱散。本句的大意是:从长远来看,这样匆忙地开除全职员工对工业的害处和对劳动力的一样大。

16.选 [D] 。应改为 how to answer 。本题的难度系数较大,许多考生能够凭直觉判断出[D]不正确,但不知道如何改正。从句子结构来看, whatever questions 是定语从句 they didn't know 的先行词, the answer 在定语从句中充当的成分难以明确,

只有把它改为 how to answer 才使句子从意义上明确,语法结构上清晰。 [A] 项 it 是 see to 的宾语,由 that 引导的定语从句修饰。 whatever 后面修饰名词,表示“无论……”的意思。介词 in 的用法也正确。本句的大意是:注意要在本份考试试卷中包括上次他们不知道如何回答的全部题目。

17.选 [B] 。应改为 their 。本题考查主语和代词的一致性。本句的主语是复数形式 newspapers ,因此与此相应的代词形式应该是 their ,而不是 its 。其他三项都是正确的,故应选 [B] 。 [C] 项的 room 相当于 space ,是不可数名词。18.选 [A] 。应改为 that 。 by which 引导一个定语从句,修饰 one sign ,但介词 by 在句子中表示“通过某种方法,手段”的意思,这与句子意思不符。应改为 that ,引导一个同位语从句,表明 one sign 的内容。 art 在本句中是一个可数名词,意思是:人文学科。 [C] 项 that 引导一个表语从句, that 不可以省略。 [D] 项也没有错误。本句的大意是:你在诸如绘画或摄影等人文学科不断取得进步的一个标志是你开始认识到有许多需要学习的知识。

19.选 [B] 。应改为 enjoys 。 and 后面的动词应当与 stays 并列,同时为句子的谓语,所以 and 后面的 enjoy 也应该用一般现在时的第三人称单数,而不应该用现在分词形式。其他三项都是正确的。

20.选 [D] 。应改为 to 。 be liable to sth. 相当于 be subject to sth.,意思是:易遭受。 be liable for sth. 也是一个短语,但意思是:对……负责任。从本句的意思来看,此处的介词应用 to 而不是 for 。其他三项没有错误。

21.选 [B] 。本题要求对所给四个选项进行词义辨析。这四个单词的意思分别是 A) bluntly: 直率地,坦白地; B) convincingly: 让人信服地; C) emphatically: 强调地; D) determinedly: 坚决地。从本句和句意来看,本句后半句指出 even his opponents were won over by his arguments (甚至连他的对手也被他的论述争取过来)说明他的论述是令人信服的。所以 [B] 项是本题的最佳选项。

22.选 [D] 。所给四个选项形似,很容易混淆其意思。 [A] assumption 是动词 assume 的名词形式,意思是:假设,假定; [B] consumption 是 consume的名词,意思是:消费,消耗; [C] presumption 是 presume 的名词,意思是:推测,假定; [D] resumption 是 resume 的名词,意思是:继续。从本句句意来看,只有 [D] 项才符合句意。本句大意是:法国上个月继续在南太平洋开展核试验引发了政治辩论和群众示威。

23.选 [C] 。所给四个选项都与“光,火花”有关,但意义仍有不同。 [A] flared: 不及物动词,意思是:火焰,闪烁; [B] glittered: 不及物动词,意思是:发光,闪亮; [C] sparked: 及物动词,意思是:引发,激起; [D] flashed: 及物动词(不及物动词),“突然发出”的意思,例如 flash a light, flash news. 从本句句意来看,只有 [C] 项为最佳选择。本句大意是:这份215页的手稿去年十月传到了出版商那里,激发了极大的兴趣。

24.选 [A] 。所给四个短语的意思分别是: [A] came off: (指计划,企图)成功。例如 The experiment finally came off ; [B] came on: 跟随,进步,开始,来到等; [C] came round: 走弯路,再现,改变观念、见解等,恢复知觉; [D] came down: 塌陷,崩溃,跌落。由此可见,只有 [A] 项符合句意。本句大意是:他要使双方和解的努力成功了。

25.选 [D] 。所给四个选项的语义分别是: [A] adapt: 调整,改编; [B] control: 控制; [C] install: 安装; [D] steer : (direct the course of) 驾驶。从本句的最后一个短语 in a profitable direction 来看,本题的最佳选项是 [D] 。本句大意是:体系又进行了重新设计,以覆盖整个网络并且最终使它向着能够盈利的方向发展。

26.选 [A] 。所给四个选项的词义分别是: [A] secure: 获得(所需之物); [B] extend: 延伸,扩展; [C] defend: 保护; [D] possess: 拥有。比较四个词项,可见只有 [A] 最符合同意。本句大意是:本来打算用来扩大出口基础和从国际贸易获得效益收益的资本却被投入到了不经济的进口替代品中。

27.选 [C] 。所给四个选项的词义分别是: [A] declared: 宣布,宣称; [B] obtained: 获得; [C] reclaimed: 要求归还; [D] recognized: 认出,承认。从句意来看,只有 [C] 最符合句意。本句大意是:通知说捡到一个钱包,可以去经理办公室认领。

28.选 [D] 。所给四个短语的意思分别是: [A] woke up: 醒来,唤醒; [B] took to: 从事,喜欢; [C] picked up: 捡起,拾起; [D] came to (one's senses/oneself)是固定说法,意思是:恢复知觉,清醒。由此可见,只有 [D] 才是本题的最佳选项。

29.选 [A] 。所给四个短语的意思分别是: [A] established on: 建立在……基础上; [B] affiliated to: 附属于,从属于; [C] originated from: 发源于; [D] incorporated with: 结合,合并。本句中的 shaky foundation of natural resources 决定其前面的动词及介词要用 [A] ,从而构成 on the foundation of ... (在……的基础上)。本句的大意是:美国社会建立在一个极为脆弱的自然资源基础上,这使环境恶化有可能发生。

30.选 [B] 。解答本题需要了解四个选项的词义及句子的意思。 [A] concerned: 关切的,关注的; [B] compatible: 相容的,融洽的; [C] considerate: 体贴的,照顾人的; [D] complied: 服从的,遵守的。从本句的 but 分句来看,“由于我没有其他地方可以居住,不得不和舍友同住一个房间”,可知我和舍友相处得不是很融洽,故本题的最佳选项是 [B] 。

31.选 [B] 。所给四个选项从词形来看具有很大的迷惑性,但词义却有很大差别, [A] transaction: 交易; [B] transmission:(消息、无线电或电视节目的)传送,传导,传达; [C] transformation: 改变,变形; [D] transition: 过渡。从句中 of 的宾词 color pictures 来判断,可知本题的最佳选项是 [B] 。本句的大意是:起初,长距离传送彩色图片看上去不可能,但是经过辛苦努力和巨大的花费开支,它成为了现实。

32.选 [A] 。所给四个短语的意义分别是: [A] got down (to sth.): 认真应付;处理;例如: get down to the facts (认真研究事实); [B] set about: 开始,着手(做某事); [C] went off: (不及物动词短语)爆炸,变质,失去知觉; [D] came up: (不及物动词短语)长出地面,发生,出现。从短语的构成来看,句子中的介词 to 从形式上决定 [A] 项是正确的,而且从意义上讲也很通顺。本句的大意是:当委员会认真研究了细节时,提议的计划看上去不太实际。

33.选 [B] 。所给四个选项的意义分别是: [A] orientation: 方向; [B] access: 通路; [C] procession: (人,车辆等的)行进队伍; [D] voyage: (水上)航行。从本句的意思来看,只有 [B] 项才符合句意。本句大意为:要到达南美洲某些地方仍然很困难,因为该大洲有些地方仍覆盖着茂盛的森林。

34.选 [D] 。所给四个选项都与“职位职业”有关,但侧重点不同。 [A] profession 职业侧重于指某些需要特殊知识和技能以及收入较好的职业,例如医生,律师等; [B] occupation 范指“职业”; [C] position: 地位,位置; [D] career: 职业,生涯,侧重于人们从事工作的经历。本句列举了 Mr. Smith 曾经从事过的多种工作,从而侧重于他的工作经历,因此只有 career 才能覆盖他所从事的这些工作。本句大意是:史密斯先生有不寻常的工作生涯:他先当过办公室职员,又当过水手,最终做了一名教师。

35.选 [C] 。所给四个选项的意思分别是: [A] intention: 目的,意图;[B] instinct: 本能; [C] integrity: 正直; [D] intensity: 强度。句子的第二部分指出“市长值得我们对她给予政治和经济支持”,很明显这是因为她是一个“正直”的女人。由此可见,本题的最佳选项是 [C] 。

36.选 [A] 。所给四个选项的意思分别是: [A] speculation: 猜测,推测; [B] attribution: 归属,归因; [C] utilization: 利用; [D] proposition: 提议,提案。本句的第一部分指出“英国的天气蔑视天气预报的权威”,这表明英国的天气预报不能准确地告诉人们未来的天气状况,因而英国的天气能引起人们的兴趣和猜测。由此可见, [A] 项是本题的最佳选项,其他三项都不符合句意。

37.选 [A] 。所给四个选项的意思分别是: [A] renders: 致使(处于某种状况); [B] reckons: 推测; [C] regards: 认为; [D] relates: 联系。四个词中只有 render 后面能用 “render it +形容词+动词不定式”的形式,而且 render 也符合本句的句意,所以只有 [A] 项正确,本句的大意是:金鹰通常在高耸的悬崖上筑巢的事实使人们不可能获得鸟卵或幼鸟。

38.选 [D] 。所给四个选项的意思分别是: [A] swift: 轻快的; [B] instant: 快的,迅速的; [C] timely: 及时的; [D] punctual: 准时的,本句的大意是:要给未来的老板留下印象,一个人要着装整洁,准时并且显示出对工作的兴趣。从句意来看,只有 [D] 项为正确选项。

39.选 [B] 。所给四个选项的意思分别是 [A] excessive: 过度的,过量的; [B] optional: 可选择的,非强制的; [C] additional: 附加的; [D] arbitrary: 任意的,武断的。本句的前半句指出:你不必在你的新车中安装这台收音机。这表明收音机是一件可有可无的附加品。四个选项中只有 [B] 项才符合句意,为本题的正确选项。

40.选 [C] 。所给四个选项的意思分别是: [A] aid: 帮助,援助; [B] amount (to) 达到……数量,程度; [C] add (to): 增加,例如: His illness added to our difficulties. ;[D] attribute (to): 把……归属于。本句的大意是:我们很高兴地看到早上送货没有增加这个繁忙城市的交通阻塞。四个选项中只有 [C] 项符合句意,为本题的正确选项第二部分完型填空

41.选 [C] 。文章的第一句指出,“如果一个农民想成功,他必须在他的消费和生产之间保持一个较大的差距”。第二句对第一句话进行了进一步的解释,指出,“他必须存储较多的谷物而不是在短时间内就把这些谷物消费掉”。所以空白处要填入的内容必须体现出“贮存”和“消耗”的相对关系,可见只有 [C] 才正确。 [A] 项other than 是“不包括”的意思,不符合原文。

42.选 [A] 。从整句话来看,这是一个应带有条件状语从句的复合句,只有 [A] 正确。

43.选 [B] 。 insurance 后面的介词有时用 for, 有时用 against。 当为某种(好)事物设立保险时,应用 for, 例如, insurance for life; 当投保险为了防范某种不利因素时要用 against, 例如: insurance against accident. 本句中的 unpredictable effects of bad weather 表明这里的介词应用 against。

44.选 [A] 。所给四个选项的意思分别是: [A] replace: 取代,替代; [B] purchase: 购买; [C] supplement: 补充; [D] dispose (和 of 连用,构成及物短语):处理,扔掉。从本句来看,农民必须把剩余的粮食作为商品卖掉以替换旧的农业生产工具。文章中的 old agricultural implements 决定只有 [A] 项才符合文意。

45.选 [C] 。表达“供给化肥,增加土壤肥力”的意思只能用 “feed the soil”。

46.选 [D] 。 [A] vessels:容器,船; [B] routes: 路线; [C] paths: 途径,路径; [D] channels: 渠道,沟渠。本句中指农民还需要建设灌溉渠道。只有 [D] 项为正确选项。

47.选 [B] 。 [A] selfconfident: 自信的; [B] selfsufficient: 自给自足的; [C] selfsatisfied: 自我满足的; [D] selfrestrained: 自我克制的。本句的条件句是:“如果没有剩余”;很明显,结果应该是:农民就不能自给自足,所以只有 [B] 项正确。

48.选 [D] 。本句前一句指出如果没有剩余,农民就不能自给自足。这一句指出,在这种情况下,农民要么卖掉他的财产,要么以贷款的形式寻求额外的基金。 [A] search 后面必须加 for 才能接名词,表示“寻找”的意思; [B] [C] 两项明显不符合文章; [D] seek 后面可直接跟名词,表示“寻求”的意思。

49.选 [C] 。 “rate of interest” 表示“利率”的意思,是常用短语。

50.选 [D] 。 [A] genuinely: 真正地; [B] obviously: 明显地; [C] presumably: 假定地; [D] frequently: 经常地。本句的前半句指出,“农民自然会努力以低利息借款”,转折连词 but 表明 but 后面的内容与前半句的内容相反,也就是“这种低利息贷款并不能够经常获得”。由引可见,只有 [D] 项才与文章内容相符。

第三部分阅读理解

51.选 [C] 。题目是:美国在二战后获得世界主导地位的原因是: [A] 它为此目标做了大量努力, [B] 它的国内市场比以前扩大了八倍; [C] 战争破坏了美国最富潜力竞争对手的经济; [D] 史无前例的劳动力规模为美国经济注入活力。

本题可采用排除及推理的方法。文章第一段第二句指出, ... it hada market eight times larger than any competitor, 这句没有指出美国的市场是国内市场还是国际市场,而且它的市场比其竞争对手大八倍,而不是和以前进行做比较,所以 [B] 项是错误的。文章第一句指出美国在二战后能够占世界主导地位是 “effortless success”, 所以 [A] 项和陈述是错误的。第三句中提到美国劳动力的素质,而没有提及其数量,因此 [D] 也是不确切的。排除后剩下 [C] 项,为本题的正确选项, [C] 项的陈述和本段最后一句的表述一致。

52.选 [D] 。题目是:在二十世纪八十年代美国失去了它在世界经济中的主导地位,这表现在: [A] 电视工业已退回到国内市场; [B] 半导体工业被外国企业收管; [C] 在一些自杀性行为后,机械制造工业倒毙了; [D] 汽车工业已失去了部分国内市场。

本题是细节类题目,需仔细阅读文章第二段。第二段中的 “Foreignmade cars and textiles were sweeping into the domestic market” 与 [D] 项的意思一致。 Now there is none (Amerlcan television maker left) 表明美国没有自己的电视制造商, [A]项在文中没有提及。 [B] [C] 两项也是对文章内容错误的表述,文章只提及美国的半导体工业面临危险,机械制造工业也处于下滑阶段。

53.选 [B] 。可以从文章推断出: [A] 在自我怀疑和盲目骄傲之间游移是人类的本性。文章第四段中提到: selfdoubt has yielded to blind pride (自我怀疑让位于盲目骄傲),但不能由此推断出人的本性就是这样,所以 [A] 的推断是不确切的。[B] 激烈的竞争也许有助于经济进一步发展。文章第二段可以看出,美国在世界经济中的主导地位日趋下降的原因是由于它的竞争对手在二十世纪八十年代逐渐变得强大起来。面对外来竞争,有些企业和行业开始衰退,但也正是由于来自其他国家的激烈竞争,美国企业开始调整其结构,改善经营管理方法,从而有助于经济发展。[C] 经济复苏有赖于国际合作。文章第一段讲述了美国在二战后的繁荣;第二段讲述了它在二十世纪八十年代经济的衰退;第二段讲述了美国人面对经济落后和衰退的种种反应;第四段讲述了九十年代美国经济的复苏以及美国人对比的不同认识。从文章内容来看,无论如何推断不出 [C] 项的陈述。[D] 一段很长的成功史可能会为更深层次的发展铺平道路。本选项是一个强干扰项,它不是对文章第一句内容的正确表述。这句的后半句 if properly handled, it may become a driving forle 是指后文中美国在激烈的竞争中,正确对待二战后的成功史,成为九十年代经济复苏的推动力。

54.选 [A] 。题目是:作者似乎认为九十年代美国经济的复苏要归因于:[A] 商业周期的运转; [B] 工业结构的调整; [C] 改善的商业经营管理方法; [D] 教育的成功。文章第四段第三句指出 “Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as ... or the turning of the business cycle”, 相反,许多人认为美国经济的复苏要归因于经营管理方法的改善和工业结构的调整。这不是作者的观点,单词 “few” 表明了作者的态度,他认为九十年代美国经济的复苏要归因于商业周期的运转。

55.选 [C] 。题目是:根据文章第一段,在过去人常面临的危险是: [A] 缺少伴侣; [B] 激烈的竞争; [C] 较低的存活率; [D] 有缺陷的基因。

解答本题的关键是要审请题目,注意题目中的 “used to bee”。 文章第一段中的 “Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram too light or too heavy meant almost certain death.” 表明五十年前人们面临的危险是生存的问题, [C] 项正确地表达了上述内容,为本题的确切答案。

56.选 [B] 。题目是:印度的例子说明: [A] 富人倾向于比穷人要更少的孩子; [B] 自然选择在穷人和富人间几乎不起作用; [C] 中产阶段的人口比部族人口少80%, [D] 印度是高出生率国家之一。文章第二段后半部分提到印度的情况。印度大城市里少数人富有,其他各部族则很贫困。这因为人们在存活和繁殖后代的数目上日趋相同,自然选择在穷人和富人身上几乎没有作用了。 [B] 项表达了上述内容,是本题的正确选项。

57.选 [A] 。题目是:作者认为我们的身体已停止进化,这是因为: [A] 技术进步改善了人们的生活; [B] 女婴数量下降; [C] 我们人类已达到了进化的最高阶段; [D] 穷富差别正在消失。文章最后一段为本题提供了线索。文章中的 “We did not evolve, because machines and society did it for us.” 换成了正确选项的表述,其中 machines and society 换成了 technological advance。

58.选 [D] 。题目是:文章最佳标题是: [A] 人类进化中性别比例的变化; [B] 使人类进化继续的方法; [C] 大自然不断进化的未来; [D] 人类进化前途难料。

文章是围绕人类进化而展开的论述。第一段以未来男孩子缺少婚姻伴侣为例指出影响人类进化的恶劣的物质条件已不存在,人类进化只是基因问题。第二段以印度为例说明人类正在 “commit evolutionary suicide”, 人类生存,但不愿多繁殖后代;第三段指出技术的进步改善了人类的生活,但人类本身却没有发生变化。综合这三段的内容,可以看出 [D] 是文章的最佳标题。

59.选 [B] 。题目是:文章的主旨是: [A] 对分析艺术新方法的调查, [B] 对未来主义诗歌的评论, [C] 未来主义运动的优点; [D] 文学的规则和要求。文章第一段指出未来主义诗歌不能被划分到文学这一类,第二段阐明了未来主义者的主张。第三段对未来主义的主张进行了评论,认为它们 “confused, upsetting”。 最后一段回应第一段,指出未来主义诗歌不能归入文学类,但同时也肯定了未来主义的一条主张,情感生活的变化要求表达方式的变化。由此可见,只有 [B] 项才能涵盖文章的内容,是本题的正确选项。

60.选 [A] 。题目是:当一个新的文学思想出现时,人们应该努力去: [A] 确定它的目的; [B] 忽略它的缺点; [C] 跟随新的潮流; [D] 接受它的原则。

文章的第一句为本题提供了线索,其中的 find out what its advocates are aiming at 换成选项 [A] 中的 determine its purposes, 这样原文和正确选项之间进行了词汇转换。

61.选 [C] 。题目是:未来主义者声称我们必须: [A] 增加文学作品的产量; [B] 用诗歌去减轻现代生活的压力; [C] 发展新的表达方式; [D] 避免使用形容词和动词。原文和正确选项之间进行了词汇转换。原文中的 This speeding up of life requires a new form of expression 换成了 [C] 项中的 new modes of expression. [A] 项在文中没有提及,文中的 speeding up of literature 是指要使文学的表现方式更富有速度感,而不是指数量的增加。未来主义者认为诗歌要改变表达方式是为了“诠释” (interpret) 现代生活的压力,而不是 [B] 项陈述的内容。文中指出一诗歌的表达要不受标点和修饰作用的形容词以及动词的限制 (unhampered by stops, or qualifying adjectives, or finite verbs), 而不是不使用这些词,所以 [D] 的表述也是不符合原文的。

62.选 [D] 。作者相信未来主义诗歌是: [A] 建立在合理的原则基础上的; [B] 对普通人来说既新鲜又让人乐于接受; [C] 显示了人类本性的基本变化; [D] 一种短暂现象而不是文学。

参考对59题的注释。

63.选 [B] 。题目是:在西方人眼中,战后日本: [A] 无目的的发展, [B] 一个正面例子, [C] 西方的对手; [D] 处于衰退中。

文章第一句否定了 [A] 项,战后日本的发展不是毫无目的 (Aimlessness has hardly been typical)。 本句中的 “Whose productivity and social harmony are the envy of the United States and Europe” 表明了西方人对日本的看法,日本的生产率和社会稳定让西方国家感到羡慕,因此战后日本是一个成功的典范,是一个正面的事例。

64.选 [D] 。题目是:作者认为日本社会道德下降的主要原因在于: [A] 妇女对社会活动的参予有限; [B] 越来越多的工人对工作不满意; [C] 过多强调基础(学科)的重要性, [D] 日本的生活方式受了西方价值观念的影响。

文章最后一段为本题提供了线索。本段陈述了日本人生活方式的变化,包括居住方式,家庭观念以及婚姻状况,而这些变化主要是受了西方价值观念的影响。

65.选 [C] 。根据作者下列陈述正确的是: [A] 日本教育因为能够帮助年轻人提高社会地位而受到称赞; [B] 日本的教育以机械学习和提倡创造力为特点; [C] 应当更多地强调创造力的培养; [D] 辍学导致对考试的反感。

文章第三段第一句指出, “While often praised by foreigners for its emphasis on the basics”, 可见,日本教育受到称赞的原因是因为它强调基础的重要性,所以 [A] 项和陈述不符合原文。 “Japanese education tends to stress test taking and mechanical learning over creativity and selfexpression” 表明 [B] 项也是错误的。本段中的 “Frustration against this kind of thing (test taking) leads kids to drop out and run wild” 表明 [D] 项也是错误,对考试的反感是辍学的原因。另外根据常识也可判断出只有 [C] 项才是正确的陈述。

66.选 [A] 。题目是:日本生活方式改变的表现是: [A] 年轻人对生活中不舒服不再持宽容态度; [B] 日本的离婚率超过了美国的离婚率; [C] 日本人比以前更富有忍耐力; [D] 日本人对现在的生活感到满意。

文章最后一段中的 “ ... but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell”表明 [A] 项是正确的, [C] 项是不确切的,和老一辈不同,年轻的日本人不再对生活中的不舒服持宽容态度,也就是说忍耐力减弱。 [B] [D] 两项明显地不符合原文内容。

67.选 [A] 。题目是:野心应当受到正确看待,只要: [A] 它的收益能够补偿为实现野心而做出的牺牲; [B] 以金钱,名誉和权力作为回报; [C] 它的目标是精神上的,而不是物质的; [D] 只有富人和名人才具有野心。

根据常识和文章的第一句: ... must be deemed worthy of the sacrifiles made on ambition's behalf 表明 [A] 项是正确的。

68.选 [C] 。题目是:文章第一段最后一段暗示: [A] 受过教育的人通常在言语上对野心不屑一顾; [B] 一但野心勃发,便很难控制; [C] 目标实现后否认野心是不诚实的行为; [D] 受过教育的人享受野心带来的利益是不实际的。

本段最后一句以 “closing the barn door after the horses have escaped” (马跑后才关马房门)为喻,指出了那些在达成雄心后否认野心存在的行为是虚伪的 (hypocrisy)。 可见 [C] 项是对这句话的正确理解。

69.选 [D] 。题目是:有些人不公开承认他们有野心是因为: [A] 他们认为野心是不道德的; [B] 他们不追求名誉和财富; [C] 野心和物质利益密切相关; [D] 他们不想显得贪婪,让人轻视。

文章第二段中的 “ ... lest they be thought pushing, acquisitive and vulgar” 换成了正确选项中的 “greedy and contemptible”, 表达了同样的内容, lest后面接虚拟语气,意思是“以防”。

70.选 [B] 。从文章最后一段可以得出的结论是: [A] 人们应当秘密地,但热情地拥有野心; [B] 公开地而且热情地怀有野心; [C] 轻易地,暂时地怀有野心; [D] 口头上和精神上怀有野心。

注意文章最后一段的用词及作者的感情和语气。其中的 “healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young”, 和作者列举的人们对野心的三种态度都表明作者认为具有野心不是一件令人耻辱的事情,人们应当公开地承认自己的抱负和理想,所以 [B] 项是正确的结论。

71.难点分析:1) varying measures 不是“不同措施”的意思, measure 在此表示“程度大小”的意思,正确的译法是:程度不同(的集中控制);

2) hence 是“于是,从而,因此”的意思;翻译时要体现出句子之间的逻辑关系;

3) operational research experts 是“运筹学研究专家”的意思,翻译成“操作研究专家”不能明确表达汉语意思。

本句的参考译文是:在现代条件下,这需要不同程度的集中控制(中央控制),从而就需要获得诸如经济学和运筹学等领域专家的协助。

72.难点分析:

1) furthermore, “而且”的意思,体现与上句话之间的递进关系,要翻译出。

2) is directly bound up with 直译是:直接地捆绑在一起,意译可译为:密切相关或直接联系在一起。

3) this 指的是第一个分句中的 “efficiency of its agriculture and industry”, 需要明确翻译。可译成:“效率的提高”。

4) rest upon 意思是:有损于,依靠。

参考译文:而且(再者),显而易见的是一个国家的经济实力与其工农业生产效率密切相关,而效率的提高又要依靠各种科学家和技术人员的努力。

73.难点分析

1) owing to ... “由于”的意思;

2) masscommunications 大众通讯;

3) wants 是一个名词,意思是“需求”;

4) being exposed to new customs and ideas 直译是:被暴露在新的习俗和思想前,意译可译为“接触新的习俗和思想”;

5) while 体现上下两句的顺承关系,可不译出;

6) 句中的两个现在进行时 “are feeling” 和 “are being exposed” 体现了人们正在经历的各种变化,可灵活翻译。

参考译文:由于大众通讯的显著发展,各地的人们不断感到有新的需求,不断接触到新的习俗和思想;而上述原因使得政*府不得不常常推出更深层次的革新。

74.难点分析:

1) in the early industrialized countries of Europe: 在先期实现工业化的欧洲国家中;

2) with all the farreaching changes in social patterns that followed 是 the process of industrialization 的伴随成份,可一同译成主语成份。 social patterns 涵盖的内容很广泛,包括社会结构,人们生活方式,生产方式等,可译为:以及随之而来的社会结构、生产、生活方式等领域的深刻变化。

3) whereas 是一个体现转折关系的连词,可译为:然而。

参考译文:在先期实现工业化的欧洲国家中,其工业化进程以及随之而来的社会结构,社会生产、生活领域的各种深刻变化,持续了大约一个世纪之久;而如今一个发展中国家在十年左右的时间内就可能完成这个过程。

75.难点分析:

1) 本句翻译成汉语时语序要做适当调整,可将 became of ... 这一介词短语放到句首,或译成句子的主语;

2) additional: 附加的,另外的,新的;

3) social stress: 社会压力;

4) 破折号后的内容可以括号的形式放在句中。 themselves 指的是mass migration movements (大量人口流动); means of transport: 交通工具。

参考译文1:

由于人口猛增或大量人口流动(现代化交通工具使这种流动相对容易)造成的种种问题,社会又面临另外的压力。

参考译文2:

人口猛增或大量人口流动(现代化交通工具使这种流动相对容易)造成的种种问题使社会又面临新的压力。

第五部分写作

76.There are two pictures which give a brief account of the history of world commercial fishing. (文章第一句引出两幅图画,下面的内容是对图画进行的描述) The first picture shows that in 1900 only few ships were engaged in fishing and there were a large number of fish in the sea. (本句概括了第一幅图画的内容) It can be seen in the second picture that in 1995 fishing ships increased by a great number while only a few fish were left to be fished in the sea. (与上一句进行比较,并且在句式上进行了变化)。

Through the contrast between the two pictures, the drawer intends to tell people that the seemingly prosperous world fishing indusery is faced with a serious source crisis. As a result of excessive fishing, there are not enough fish in the sea. (这两句阐明了画者的意图,并指出了问题的原因) Without enough fish, the fishing industry will collapse. (紧承上句,进一步表明问题的严重性)

The first picture provides a possible solution to this problem. As can be seen in the first picture, wellplanned and mediumscale fishing can guarantee a stable source of fish. Therefore the feasible way out for world commercial fishing is to avoiid excessive fishing and cooperation among countries should be strengthened to protect the environment for the fish to survive. Only in this way can world fishing industry gain sustained development. (最后一段从第一幅图出发指出了解决问题的措施,句式灵活多变,用词贴切)

评语:本篇作文属于第一档次(1513分),内容切题,包括题目中

所列三方面的内容;清楚地表达了其内涵,文字连贯,句式灵活,句子结构和用词正确。文章长度也符合要求。

2000年考研考试全国统一命题英语试卷主观性试题评分执行细则

(作文样卷)

(1)As is shown in the pictures, we can see clearly that with the increase of commercial fishing, the number of fishes sharply decreased


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