段落的组成分为三部分，主题句(Topic Sentence),扩展句(Developing Sentences)和结论句(Concluding Sentence)。下面分别就这三方面进行详解。
(1)主题句首先应是一个完整的句子，任何词组或修饰成分都不能作主题句。如：More burdens,就不是一个完整的句子。Reading is thought to be a kind of conversation between the reader and the text，则是一个比较好的主题句。
(2)主题句不应太笼统概括。如：William Shakespeare is great这句话很笼统，对段落如何展开没有指导和限定作用，因而不能作主题句。如改为：William Shakespeare wrote several historic plays,则下文就能围绕莎翁的历史剧展开论述了。
(3)主题句不能太具体。如：The dictionary is small，句子如果太琐碎具体就失去进一步展开的意义了。
(4)各段的主题句应相互照应。在以 No Smoking为题的作文中，各段的主题句分别是：
Smoking is harmful.
Smoking does not only harm the smokers but also people around them.
Therefore, smoking is a bad habit.
第二段的主题句用not only，but also连接词语沟通了上下两段的内容。第三段的Therefore又起了承上启下的作用，使全篇融为一体。
Lies also do harm to those who tell them: harm to their integrity and, in the long run, to their credibility. Lies hurt their colleagues as well. The suspicion of deceit undercuts the work of the many doctors who are scrupulously honest with their patients; it contributes to the spiral of lawsuits and of “defensive medicine”, and thus it injures, in turn, the entire medical profession.
一般地说，比较是指对事物的相同方面进行比较；对比是指对比事物的差异或不同方面。下面两段就采用了对比方法。这两段将口头英语与书面英语的不同方面作了比较，两段的观点都一一对应，比如：Oral English is informal while written English is comparatively formal就是一对观点的对比。另外，两段之间用unlike oral English承接，既让段落过渡自然，又使对比强烈。
First of all, oral English is usually considered informal. So no matter how poor one’s language is and how strange and foreign one’s pronunciation is, it seems insignificant if only one can make his audience understood. Secondly, as to the audience, they are only interested in grasping the meaning, not actually mind, or even hardly notice how many grammatical mistakes the speaker makes. Furthermore, oral English is also regarded adaptable. When we cannot express something precisely, we may give the explanation of it instead, or correct the mistakes on the spot. So oral English gives less chances of misunderstanding.
Unlike oral English, written English is comparatively formal. It requires good spelling and perfect grammar. Poor spelling and too many grammatical mistakes will put readers in a puzzling difficulty. They would be confused about what writers are getting at. In addition, once the words are printed on the paper and handed to whoever the person concerned, writers can no longer make any changes. To avoid this, one has to pay much attention to spelling, practice grammar and write clearly—constructed paragraphs. As a result it will take longer time and much more efforts to communicate in written English than in oral English.
As the summer progresses and the fawns grow, they become less dependent on their mother’s milk and more dependent on growing plants as food sources. The adult males spend the summer growing antlers and getting fat. Both males and females continue to eat high quality food in the fall in order to deposit body fat for the winter. In the case of does and fawns, a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing, and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males. Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes difficult to reach because of deep snow.
As fall turns into winter, other changes take place. Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker. The change in the hair coats is usually complete by September and maximum hair depths are reached by November or December when winter becomes cold.
It is a beautiful and quiet night. The moon is like a disc hanging on the dark sky, which casts its light on everything. Around the lake are some trees, their slender leaves billowing in the gentle wind. There must be some frogs in the middle of the lake, whose endless singing can be heard clearly. What an attractive night!
The whole process of summarizing implies an ability to make decisions. You have to decide what the author’s plan is, how the material has been organized, what the key ideas are, and what material is used merely as example. You will not find the technique of summarizing easy at first because it requires so many decisions. But your efficiency in making summaries, as well as your general reading efficiency, will increase in proportion to the time and effort you spend on perfecting your notetaking technique.
Our university is one of the most famous universities in China. It is an old university whose origins can be traced back to 1938, when it was first built up in Yan An. Now, it is located in the northwest of Beijing. As a university of liberal arts, it has 25 departments, more than 50 majors, about 7 000 students and 4 000 teachers. It also plays a leading role in social science. In short, our university is wellknown both at home and abroad.
下面段落阐述了三方面的内容：environment, goods和service,可以用连接词not only…but also将三方面概括为一句作为结论句。
Walking into those luxury shopping centers, people will be fascinated by the beautiful decorations, graceful environment and elegant goods. There are various things for people to select: fashionable clothes, lovely stationery or precious jewelries. Besides people will be warmly greeted by salesmen and women who will offer a satisfactory service. In a word, such shopping centers provide not only pleasant environment, abundant goods but also excellent service.
Many health experts consider breakfast to be the most important meal of the day. If we eat a good breakfast, we’ll have the energy and nutrients we need to begin our working day vigorously. It is especially true if one’s work involves mental activity. However, what happens if people skip breakfast or substitute a simple one for a high qualified meal?
如：In brief, tourism , according to my opinion, should not be encouraged.这里in brief起总结作用。Certainly, close cooperation will make the world a better place.这里的certainly发挥了强调及过渡作用。
(1)To begin with首先
例：To begin with, smoking should be banned in public areas. “首先，公共场所禁止吸烟。”
(2)First of all第一，首先
例：First of all, many people in remote areas still live in poverty. “第一，居住在边远地区的许多人仍生活在贫困之中。”
(3) Generally speaking一般地说，总体上说
例：Generally speaking, it is the best policy to spend more money on libraries. “总的说来，加大图书馆的投资是良策。”
(4)With(the development/progress/growth)of (economy/society)…随着(经济、社会)的(发展、进步、增长)…
例：With the development of society, women’s role has become more important than ever before in daily life. “随着社会的发展，妇女在社会生活中比以往发挥着更加重要的作用。”
例：Recently，the problem(conflict, production)of grain shortage has become the world focus.“近来粮食短缺问题已成为全球关注的焦点。”
例：In conclusion, the international agreement should be made to prevent the world from war. “最后，应达成国际协定使世界避免战争。”
例：In brief, family planning is of vital importance in China. “简言之，计划生育对中国具有重要意义。”
(3)In a word总之
例：In a word, without mutual understanding, true friendship does not exist. “总之，没有相互理解，真正的友谊是不存在的。”
(4)It is high time that…到…时候了
例：It is high time that the issue were to be solved so as to promote the economic development. “为了促进经济发展到该解决问题的时候了。”
(5)It is only when…that…只有当…才…
例：It is only when people become the masters of the country that science can serve the people. “只有当人民成为国家的主人，科学才能为人民服务。”
(1)first, second, third…第一，第二，第三
例：First, she had studied chemistry during her sophomore and junior years. Second, she never missed a class. Third, she performed every required experiment in all her chemistry courses. Fourth, she always worked hard. Her classmates were sure that she would win top award in Chemistry during her senior year at the university.“首先，她在一二年级时就选修了化学课程。其次，她从不误课。再有，她认真完成每一次化学试验。还有，她学习非常刻苦。因而同学们确信她在高年级时会获得学校化学大奖。”
(2)To begin with…,moreover…,finally…，首先…，此外…，最后…
例：There are a few reasons for his decision of studying law. To begin with, he is very interested in social affairs and it seems the best way to enable him to engage in these activities. Moreover, his father is a lawyer. He has always encouraged him to do something similar. Finally, he is sure he can get a job after graduation.他决定学法律有几方面的原因：首先，他对社会事物感兴趣，学习法律有助于他参与这些活动。此外，他父亲是个律师，一直鼓励他从事同样的职业。最后，他确信毕业后能找到工作。”
例：Meanwhile, the better skills and knowledge children possess, the more opportunities they will be ensured. “同时，孩子们的技艺与知识掌握得越好，今后的机会就越多。”
例：Since then, the Olympics turned out to be an instrument of peace and freedom for small nations. “自此之后，奥林匹克运动成为小国争取和平和自由的工具。”
例：Therefore, if this is included in good education that parents are seeking now, their children will be definitely ensured a bright future.“因而，如果父母们在其为孩子们寻求的良好教育中加入这一点，他们的子女肯定会有一个光辉灿烂的未来。”
(1)As a result由于…结果
例：Her performance in college was excellent. As a result, she has got a satisfactory job. “由于她在大学成绩优异，她找到一份令人满意的工作。”
例：My trip to Guangzhou and Shenzhen has to be cancelled due to the financial problem. “由于财务问题，我去广州和深圳的旅行取消了。”
例：The government was unwilling to risk a conflict with that neighboring country, and consequently, promised to sign the treaty.“ 该国政府不愿冒险与邻国发生冲突，因此答应签署条约。”
(4)One may criticise……for……，but the real cause of…lies deeper人们可以因为…批评…，但是…的真正原因在更深层次
例：One may criticize the school authorities for the fire accident, but the real reason of the accident lies deeper. “人们可以就火灾事故批评校领导，但事故还有更深的原因。”
(5)Among…reasons, one should be emphasized that…在众多的原因中，其中一点给予强调…
例：Among the most important reasons, one reason should be emphasized that large pieces of cultivated land have been occupied, which results in the grain shortage.“在许多重要的原因中，其中一点应强调的是造成粮食减产是因为大量的可耕地被占用。”
例：Unlike oral English, written English is comparatively formal. “与口头英语不同，笔头英语比较正规。”
例：In contrast with Tom, Mario seldom studies harder. “与汤姆比，玛里奥很少努力学习。”
(3)On the other hand…另一方面
例：The life expectancy in developing countries has increased during the past thirty years. On the other hand, the infant mortality has decreased from twenty percent to ten percent in the same period. “发展中国家的期望寿命在过去的30年间都增长了。另一方面婴儿死亡率同期由20%下降到10%。”
例：Plenty of food must be packed for the journey；likewise, warm clothes will also be needed.“要带上旅行中吃的食品，同样也需要带上御寒保暖的衣服。”
例：If only one can make his audience understood, it seems insignificant if one makes some mistakes in his oral English; similarly, as to the audience, they are only interested in grasping the meaning, not actually mind or even hardly notice the speakers mistakes.“只要能使听众听明白，在口头英语中出一些错误是无关紧要的，同样作为听众也只对讲话者的意思感兴趣，根本不介意或几乎注意不到讲话者所犯的口语错误。”
|Fruit and Vegetables||24%||22%||20%||20%||21%|
According to the above table, we can see that some changes have taken place in people’s diet since 1986, which clearly indicates the improvement of people’s living standard.
One of the big changes is the decrease of grain consumption with 49 percent in 1986 and 45 percent in 1990.On people’s dinner tables the traditional dominant food—grain has given some way to milk and meat which were seldom seen on dinner tables before. Since the economic reform in 1978, various kinds of food have become popular in Chinese families.
However, there is a steady reduction of fruit and vegetables with 24 percent in 1986 and a three point drop by 1990.But this is not the main trend. As the living standard of the Chinese people is rising, we look forward to further changes in people’s diet. The proportion of fruit and vegetables as well as milk and meat will definitely increase in the coming years.