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考研英语写作:写作技巧

一篇好的短文应该观点明确,思路清晰,论述有力、准确,语言正确,文字简洁、流畅、连贯,结构严谨。短文是由段落组成,因此写好段落是写好短文的关键。

段落的组成分为三部分,主题句(Topic Sentence),扩展句(Developing Sentences)结论句(Concluding Sentence)。下面分别就这三方面进行详解。

(一)主题句

1.主题句的作用

主题句是全段的核心句,读者通过主题句能了解段落的中心思想。一个好的主题句还能限制话题所谈论的范围,表明段落展开的方向及方法。在英语文章中,围绕主题句展开的段落很多。 英语的段落只能有一个中心思想,如要再论述其他与该段中心思想无关的内容应另起一段。

2.主题句的位置

主题句的位置可以在段首,可以在段落中间,也可以在段尾,也可以在段首段尾同时出现,主题句出现在段落首或尾完全由写作需要而定。一般地说来,写100多词的小短文把主题句放在段首更有利于考生扣准中心思想展开论述。

3.怎样写好主题句

主题句在段落中有着举足轻重的作用。因此写好主题句是写好段落的关键。在构思主题句时要注意以下三个方面:

(1)主题句首先应是一个完整的句子,任何词组或修饰成分都不能作主题句。如:More burdens,就不是一个完整的句子。Reading is thought to be a kind of conversation between the reader and the text,则是一个比较好的主题句。

(2)主题句不应太笼统概括。如:William Shakespeare is great这句话很笼统,对段落如何展开没有指导和限定作用,因而不能作主题句。如改为:William Shakespeare wrote several historic plays,则下文就能围绕莎翁的历史剧展开论述了。

(3)主题句不能太具体。如:The dictionary is small,句子如果太琐碎具体就失去进一步展开的意义了。

(4)各段的主题句应相互照应。在以 No Smoking为题的作文中,各段的主题句分别是:

Smoking is harmful.

Smoking does not only harm the smokers but also people around them.

Therefore, smoking is a bad habit.

第二段的主题句用not only,but also连接词语沟通了上下两段的内容。第三段的Therefore又起了承上启下的作用,使全篇融为一体。

(二)段落的展开

展开段落的方法有很多种,在这里我们仅介绍几种常用方法。

1.依据归纳法或演绎法进行论述

依据归纳法展开段落是指在段落中先引用具体事实或因由进行阐述或论说,进而得出结论。演绎法则是由一般推出特殊情况的结论。

2.依据重要性展开段落

依据思想或事实或理由的重要性的先后次序进行论述,可以从次要至重要,也可以从重要至次重要。下面段落是以次重要至重要的方法进行论述的。作者首先指出(医生)对病人撒谎不仅对医生本人不好,也会伤害同事,进而会有损于整个医疗事业。

Lies also do harm to those who tell them: harm to their integrity and, in the long run, to their credibility. Lies hurt their colleagues as well. The suspicion of deceit undercuts the work of the many doctors who are scrupulously honest with their patients; it contributes to the spiral of lawsuits and of “defensive medicine”, and thus it injures, in turn, the entire medical profession.

3.依据比较和对比法进行论述

一般地说,比较是指对事物的相同方面进行比较;对比是指对比事物的差异或不同方面。下面两段就采用了对比方法。这两段将口头英语与书面英语的不同方面作了比较,两段的观点都一一对应,比如:Oral English is informal while written English is comparatively formal就是一对观点的对比。另外,两段之间用unlike oral English承接,既让段落过渡自然,又使对比强烈。

First of all, oral English is usually considered informal. So no matter how poor one’s language is and how strange and foreign one’s pronunciation is, it seems insignificant if only one can make his audience understood. Secondly, as to the audience, they are only interested in grasping the meaning, not actually mind, or even hardly notice how many grammatical mistakes the speaker makes. Furthermore, oral English is also regarded adaptable. When we cannot express something precisely, we may give the explanation of it instead, or correct the mistakes on the spot. So oral English gives less chances of misunderstanding.

Unlike oral English, written English is comparatively formal. It requires good spelling and perfect grammar. Poor spelling and too many grammatical mistakes will put readers in a puzzling difficulty. They would be confused about what writers are getting at. In addition, once the words are printed on the paper and handed to whoever the person concerned, writers can no longer make any changes. To avoid this, one has to pay much attention to spelling, practice grammar and write clearly—constructed paragraphs. As a result it will take longer time and much more efforts to communicate in written English than in oral English.

4.依据时间的先后进行论述

依据时间的先后次序展开段落,就是完全按照事物实际发展的时间先后进行论述。如:下面两段就是以时间为序介绍鹿的生长过程。随着夏季一天天过去,又随着秋去冬来,鹿的新陈代谢也随着季节的推移而变化。(Exposition)

As the summer progresses and the fawns grow, they become less dependent on their mother’s milk and more dependent on growing plants as food sources. The adult males spend the summer growing antlers and getting fat. Both males and females continue to eat high quality food in the fall in order to deposit body fat for the winter. In the case of does and fawns, a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing, and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males. Fat reserves are like bank accounts to be drawn on in the winter when food supplies are limited and sometimes difficult to reach because of deep snow.

As fall turns into winter, other changes take place. Fawns lose their spotted coat. Hair on all the deer becomes darker and thicker. The change in the hair coats is usually complete by September and maximum hair depths are reached by November or December when winter becomes cold.

5.依据空间顺序展开段落

依据空间的次序进行论述应是有序地由远至近或由近至远,由上至下或由下至上对事物进行描写。下面的例子描写了一幅美丽宁静的夜景。作者先描写空中的月亮,再随洒向大地的月光写到湖四周随风摇曳的树枝,又由青蛙的叫声把读者引到了湖的中央,最后结尾讲:这是一个多么迷人的夜晚。这个段落文字简洁流畅,有序地按空间顺序由上写到下,由外写到里。读者可在平时的练习中注意模仿。(description )

It is a beautiful and quiet night. The moon is like a disc hanging on the dark sky, which casts its light on everything. Around the lake are some trees, their slender leaves billowing in the gentle wind. There must be some frogs in the middle of the lake, whose endless singing can be heard clearly. What an attractive night!

(三)写好结尾句

段落结尾或文章的结尾的方法很多,比如在文章的结论段提出问题,让读者自己去解答;引用谚语或名人名言进一步印证作者的观点;或将前面所讲的内容重点摘述等。在这里仅介绍几种适合写短文结尾的常用方法。

1.回答段落主题句中暗示的问题

如下面段落的第一句作为主题句阐明了做摘要的全过程显示(一个人)的决策能力。在文章的结尾作者以答复的口气作结论说:根据你在做笔记时所投入的时间和精力,你做摘要的效率会得到相应的提高。

The whole process of summarizing implies an ability to make decisions. You have to decide what the author’s plan is, how the material has been organized, what the key ideas are, and what material is used merely as example. You will not find the technique of summarizing easy at first because it requires so many decisions. But your efficiency in making summaries, as well as your general reading efficiency, will increase in proportion to the time and effort you spend on perfecting your notetaking technique.

2.呼应主题句中的关键词,使用关键词的同义词重申段落的中心思想

下面段落的第一句为主题句,其关键词是famous。在结尾句中可使用它的同义词well known作结论。

Our university is one of the most famous universities in China. It is an old university whose origins can be traced back to 1938, when it was first built up in Yan An. Now, it is located in the northwest of Beijing. As a university of liberal arts, it has 25 departments, more than 50 majors, about 7 000 students and 4 000 teachers. It also plays a leading role in social science. In short, our university is wellknown both at home and abroad.

3.将段落中所论述的内容以摘要的方式进行总结

下面段落阐述了三方面的内容:environment, goods和service,可以用连接词not only…but also将三方面概括为一句作为结论句。

Walking into those luxury shopping centers, people will be fascinated by the beautiful decorations, graceful environment and elegant goods. There are various things for people to select: fashionable clothes, lovely stationery or precious jewelries. Besides people will be warmly greeted by salesmen and women who will offer a satisfactory service. In a word, such shopping centers provide not only pleasant environment, abundant goods but also excellent service.

4.以提问的方式结束段落

下面的段落讲述吃早饭的重要性,结尾句作者设问:如果不吃早饭或凑合吃一口会怎么样?这样的结尾为下一段不吃早饭的危害作了铺垫。

Many health experts consider breakfast to be the most important meal of the day. If we eat a good breakfast, we’ll have the energy and nutrients we need to begin our working day vigorously. It is especially true if one’s work involves mental activity. However, what happens if people skip breakfast or substitute a simple one for a high qualified meal?

5.使用过渡词给文章或段落作结论

如:In brief, tourism , according to my opinion, should not be encouraged.这里in brief起总结作用。Certainly, close cooperation will make the world a better place.这里的certainly发挥了强调及过渡作用。

常用过渡词和句型

过渡词在文章中发挥着连接上下文的作用,学会恰当地运用过渡词会使文章连贯、流畅。本节提供的过渡词都是最基本的,考生在时间紧、工作繁忙的情况下,可根据自己的喜好,掌握各类中的二至三个用法即可。

1.常用于文章开始的过渡词语和句子

(1)To begin with首先

例:To begin with, smoking should be banned in public areas. “首先,公共场所禁止吸烟。”

(2)First of all第一,首先

例:First of all, many people in remote areas still live in poverty. “第一,居住在边远地区的许多人仍生活在贫困之中。”

(3) Generally speaking一般地说,总体上说

例:Generally speaking, it is the best policy to spend more money on libraries. “总的说来,加大图书馆的投资是良策。”

(4)With(the development/progress/growth)of (economy/society)…随着(经济、社会)的(发展、进步、增长)…

例:With the development of society, women’s role has become more important than ever before in daily life. “随着社会的发展,妇女在社会生活中比以往发挥着更加重要的作用。”

(5)Recently近来

例:Recently,the problem(conflict, production)of grain shortage has become the world focus.“近来粮食短缺问题已成为全球关注的焦点。”

2.常用于文章结尾的过渡词和句子

(1)In conclusion最后,在结束时

例:In conclusion, the international agreement should be made to prevent the world from war. “最后,应达成国际协定使世界避免战争。”

(2)In brief简言之

例:In brief, family planning is of vital importance in China. “简言之,计划生育对中国具有重要意义。”

(3)In a word总之

例:In a word, without mutual understanding, true friendship does not exist. “总之,没有相互理解,真正的友谊是不存在的。”

(4)It is high time that…到…时候了

例:It is high time that the issue were to be solved so as to promote the economic development. “为了促进经济发展到该解决问题的时候了。”

(5)It is only when…that…只有当…才…

例:It is only when people become the masters of the country that science can serve the people. “只有当人民成为国家的主人,科学才能为人民服务。”

3.常用于表示先后次序的过渡词语及句子

(1)first, second, third…第一,第二,第三

例:First, she had studied chemistry during her sophomore and junior years. Second, she never missed a class. Third, she performed every required experiment in all her chemistry courses. Fourth, she always worked hard. Her classmates were sure that she would win top award in Chemistry during her senior year at the university.“首先,她在一二年级时就选修了化学课程。其次,她从不误课。再有,她认真完成每一次化学试验。还有,她学习非常刻苦。因而同学们确信她在高年级时会获得学校化学大奖。”

(2)To begin with…,moreover…,finally…,首先…,此外…,最后…

例:There are a few reasons for his decision of studying law. To begin with, he is very interested in social affairs and it seems the best way to enable him to engage in these activities. Moreover, his father is a lawyer. He has always encouraged him to do something similar. Finally, he is sure he can get a job after graduation.他决定学法律有几方面的原因:首先,他对社会事物感兴趣,学习法律有助于他参与这些活动。此外,他父亲是个律师,一直鼓励他从事同样的职业。最后,他确信毕业后能找到工作。”

(3)Meanwhile同时

例:Meanwhile, the better skills and knowledge children possess, the more opportunities they will be ensured. “同时,孩子们的技艺与知识掌握得越好,今后的机会就越多。”

(4)since then自此之后

例:Since then, the Olympics turned out to be an instrument of peace and freedom for small nations. “自此之后,奥林匹克运动成为小国争取和平和自由的工具。”

(5)Therefore因而

例:Therefore, if this is included in good education that parents are seeking now, their children will be definitely ensured a bright future.“因而,如果父母们在其为孩子们寻求的良好教育中加入这一点,他们的子女肯定会有一个光辉灿烂的未来。”

4.常用于表示因果关系及分析原因的过渡词语与句子

(1)As a result由于…结果

例:Her performance in college was excellent. As a result, she has got a satisfactory job. “由于她在大学成绩优异,她找到一份令人满意的工作。”

(2)Due to由于

例:My trip to Guangzhou and Shenzhen has to be cancelled due to the financial problem. “由于财务问题,我去广州和深圳的旅行取消了。”

(3)consequently结果,因此

例:The government was unwilling to risk a conflict with that neighboring country, and consequently, promised to sign the treaty.“ 该国政府不愿冒险与邻国发生冲突,因此答应签署条约。”

(4)One may criticise……for……,but the real cause of…lies deeper人们可以因为…批评…,但是…的真正原因在更深层次

例:One may criticize the school authorities for the fire accident, but the real reason of the accident lies deeper. “人们可以就火灾事故批评校领导,但事故还有更深的原因。”

(5)Among…reasons, one should be emphasized that…在众多的原因中,其中一点给予强调…

例:Among the most important reasons, one reason should be emphasized that large pieces of cultivated land have been occupied, which results in the grain shortage.“在许多重要的原因中,其中一点应强调的是造成粮食减产是因为大量的可耕地被占用。”

5.常用于比较和对比的过渡词

(1)unlike…与…不同

例:Unlike oral English, written English is comparatively formal. “与口头英语不同,笔头英语比较正规。”

(2)In contrast…与之相比

例:In contrast with Tom, Mario seldom studies harder. “与汤姆比,玛里奥很少努力学习。”

(3)On the other hand…另一方面

例:The life expectancy in developing countries has increased during the past thirty years. On the other hand, the infant mortality has decreased from twenty percent to ten percent in the same period. “发展中国家的期望寿命在过去的30年间都增长了。另一方面婴儿死亡率同期由20%下降到10%。”

(4)Likewise同样

例:Plenty of food must be packed for the journey;likewise, warm clothes will also be needed.“要带上旅行中吃的食品,同样也需要带上御寒保暖的衣服。”

(5)similarly同样

例:If only one can make his audience understood, it seems insignificant if one makes some mistakes in his oral English; similarly, as to the audience, they are only interested in grasping the meaning, not actually mind or even hardly notice the speakers mistakes.“只要能使听众听明白,在口头英语中出一些错误是无关紧要的,同样作为听众也只对讲话者的意思感兴趣,根本不介意或几乎注意不到讲话者所犯的口语错误。”

(四)图表作文

图表作文与写议论文和说明文的写作方法大致相同,唯一的差异就是如何利用浓缩在图表中的信息阐明图中各种数据和信息所反映的问题。因此考生在写此类作文时只有在看懂图表的基础上才能动笔写。如果不能全部领会图中信息,在写作中就会出现这样或那样的问题。因此考生在阅读图表时应注意以下两点:

第一,掌握图表上提供的信息及每一栏上面的小标题的标注,由此弄清设计者想通过图表反映出的信息、问题或现象。

第二,在掌握全部信息的基础上,着手分析这些信息和表上的具体数字。通过分析与对比,抓住问题,便可以开拓思路,构思文章的布局、段落的划分及上下文的连贯等。

段落的划分可根据内容而定。一般第一段应对图表做一简要的概述,点出所要涉及的问题;中间段落应对图表的重要问题进行分析;结尾段对全文做一小结。

请看下面图表:

FOOD\YEAR 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Grain 49% 47% 46.5% 45% 45%
Milk 10% 11% 11% 12% 13%
Meat 17% 20% 22.5% 23% 21%
Fruit and Vegetables 24% 22% 20% 20% 21%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

审题:

这张图表介绍了1986年~1990年人们食品结构发生的变化。食品包括四大类:粮、奶、肉及水果蔬菜。从图表上看,粮食消费量在逐年下降,奶和肉的消费量在上升,可见人民生活水平提高了。蔬菜水果消费量下降的原因可否归结为物价上扬问题。根据上述分析我们可以将文章分为3~5段。

According to the above table, we can see that some changes have taken place in people’s diet since 1986, which clearly indicates the improvement of people’s living standard.

One of the big changes is the decrease of grain consumption with 49 percent in 1986 and 45 percent in 1990.On people’s dinner tables the traditional dominant food—grain has given some way to milk and meat which were seldom seen on dinner tables before. Since the economic reform in 1978, various kinds of food have become popular in Chinese families.

However, there is a steady reduction of fruit and vegetables with 24 percent in 1986 and a three point drop by 1990.But this is not the main trend. As the living standard of the Chinese people is rising, we look forward to further changes in people’s diet. The proportion of fruit and vegetables as well as milk and meat will definitely increase in the coming years.

(五)对考生的几点建议

以下几方面是考生在复习准备期间和考试时应特别注意的:

(一)考前准备

考生在考前应写几篇短文,按照本书提供的练习,先找自己感兴趣的题目写。对一些从没写过英语作
文的考生来说,要克服畏难情绪,写第一篇作文时,考生有可能出现较多较严重的错误,但不要紧,因为只有迈出第一步,才能取得更大的进步,否则会永远停留在不会写的水平上。建议考生自己动笔,写前不要看范文,可以参考一下写作提示,写完后再与范文对照。另外,不要死记硬背范文,考生应从范文中找出自己喜好和需要的句型或词汇记忆,因为作文没有唯一的标准答案,只要写得好就会得高分。

(二)避免写错句

作文要表达清楚,错句、语病太多肯定影响表达思想。因而考生在写作时一定要首先做到尽可能地减少错误,在此基础上才可以考虑有一些句式的变化。如果为了追求句式的变化而出现一些本来可以避免的错误,同样会影响成绩。同时,写作时还应避开自己不会用英文表达的思想,使用自己有把握的句型和词汇,这样才能更好地避免错误。

(三)篇幅适中

由于写作的时间只有30分钟,篇幅要求100词左右,因此考生在确定段落的主题句之后,只要围绕段落的中心思想写三至五句,把意思表达清楚即可。一般情况下,一篇三段文的短篇,各段的长度应相差不多,不应在前二段中花太多的时间,而后一段只匆匆写了一句,这样做也会影响成绩。

(四)修改定稿

修改定稿是考生在考场应试时决不能缺少的一步。考生在30分钟的写作考试中应留出2至3分钟,把自己的作文通读一遍,检查错句及语病。相当多的考生是能分辨错误的,只是写时未加注意,只要认真检查,许多常见错误如主谓一致问题、大小写问题、拼写及标点符号等都是可以自己更正的。如果考生在平时的写作训练中抓住这一环节养成习惯,正式考试时就不会忽视修改定稿了。

 


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