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肺泡腔纤维素嗜中性粒细胞渗出

肺泡腔纤维素嗜中性粒细胞渗出
图示:血管扩张渗出,伴有纤维蛋白的渗出液同嗜中性粒细胞一起渗出到肺泡腔。炎症过程分以下几步:
血管扩张:炎症灶血流量增加使得局部红、热。
血管通透性增加:由于内皮细胞直接受损或由炎症介质的作用,使血管通透性增加。
渗出:由于血管内流体静压的升高、组织间渗透压的升高使液体、蛋白、红细胞和白细胞从血管内渗出到血管外。
血流淤滞:由于血管扩张、炎症渗出,使血流变慢,这有利于炎症介质和炎细胞聚集引起炎症刺激。

Seen here is vasodilation with exudation that has led to an outpouring of fluid with fibrin into the alveolar spaces, along with PMN's. The series of events in the process of inflammation are:

  1. Vasodilation: leads to greater blood flow to the area of inflammation, resulting in redness and heat.

  2. Vascular permeability: endothelial cells become "leaky" from either direct endothelial cell injury or via chemical mediators.

  3. Exudation: fluid, proteins, red blood cells, and white blood cells escape from the intravascular space as a result of increased osmotic pressure extravascularly and increased hydrostatic pressure intravascularly。

  4. Vascular stasis: slowing of the blood in the bloodstream with vasodilation and fluid exudation to allow chemical mediators and inflammatory cells to collect and respond to the stimulus.


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