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细胞组成成份模式图


细胞的结构和功能取决于多样的组成成份。腺上皮细胞(5)(沿小肠刷状缘排列的)有微绒毛(1),细胞质内有粘蛋白空泡(2),上皮细胞间有桥粒(3)连接。许多细胞都有细胞骨架蛋白,鳞状上皮细胞有许多细胞骨架成份如张力丝(7)。神经内分泌分化方向的细胞胞浆内往往含有神经内分泌颗粒(4)。细胞外基质由各种成份组成。可见细胞连向整联蛋白(8蓝色)的粘连复合物。可见基底膜(6)。基底膜的一种重要成份是昆布氨酸(9红色),它通过整联蛋白固定细胞在基底膜上。胶原是细胞外基质的结构性成份,维持形状和稳定性。粘连蛋白(11)使各种成份粘连在一起。

Cellular structure and function are determined by various cellular components. Glandular epithelial cells, such as the lining of the small intestine with a brush border, have microvilli. Glandular epithelial cells may have cytoplasmic mucin vacuoles. Epithelial cells are characterized by the presence of desmosomes that connect them. Many types of cells have cytoskeletal proteins. Squamous epithelial cells may have cytoskeletal elements such as tonofilaments. Cells with neuroendocrine differentiation tend to be rounded and may have cytoplasmic neurosecretory granules. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of a variety of components. An adhesion complex in the cell links to integrin that extends outward. Seen here is a basement membrane. An important component of basement membrane is laminin, which acts as a "lag bolt" to connect cells via integrin to the ECM. Collagen (type IV in basement membrane and types V and VI as fine fibrils) comprises the structural component of ECM that provides shape and stability. Fibronectin is an adhesive protein that acts as a "glue" to hold the various components together.


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